57 mm anti-tank gun M1943

ZiS-2 (in Russian 57-мм противотанковая пушка образца 1941 года (ЗиС-2)) is an anti-tank gun of 57 mm used by the army Soviet during the Second World War. ZiS-4 was a version of this gun for the tanks.

ZiS signigie “Zavod imeni Stalina” (in Russian Завод имени Сталина, factory on behalf of Stalin), the official name of the artillery factory No. 92 of Moscow, which began production of this gun.

Description

The 57-mm anti-tank gun model 1943 (ZiS-2) was a semi-automatic gun with a breech opening vertically. When shooting, the bolt is opened and closed automatically, leaving as the only task charger place a shell into the receptacle. With this feature, the firing rate could reach 25 strokes per minute. The rear end fold and the barrel shroud was inherited from the divisional gun ZiS-3. The undercarriage had suspensions coil springs, which could achieve speeds of towing 50 km / h on motorways, 30 km / h on the track and 10 km / h off-road. The gun could also be coupled to a box, and drawn by six horses. The ZiS-2 were equipped with a panoramic sight PP1-2.

Development

The 57 mm antitank gun “ZiS-2″ was one of the many productions Grabin engineer and his team ZiS factory.

In early 1940 the design office VG Grabin received the Department of Artillery order to develop a powerful anti-tank gun. The head of this department, Marshal Marshal Kulik and his staff believed that the use of the USSR heavily armored tank during the Russo-Finnish War had not escaped the German Nazi, and was going to lead the development of similar battle gear. It is also possible that the Department was influenced by the propaganda around the German made ​​”supertank” experimental multiple turrets, the NbFz: This vehicle was credited with a shield than he actually had.

Therefore Grabin and his office were guided by the characteristics of the national heavy tank KV-1, with 40 to 75 mm of armor. In the opinion of the engineers, the optimal size in this case was 57 mm. The speed and the mass of a projectile penetrating 57 mm gave him enough kinetic energy to overcome a shield of 90 mm, while keeping the gun enough lightness, mobility and ease of concealment. However, this decision was a boring result: this class is new for the Red Army, he led the development of a new ammunition from scratch. It combined a socket with a new 76.2 mm armor-piercing 57 mm, weighing 3.14 kg

The new piece, originally named F-31, was derived from the divisional gun F-24 76.2 mm, which practically only the barrel was changed. She had an initial speed of 1000 m / s.

The first prototypes were ready in October 1940, and were opposed to another room designed by Grabin: ZiS-1KV, using the same ammunition but with a long barrel 86 gauge giving a muzzle velocity of 1150 m / s, mounted on the look of the F-22USV, all weighing 1,650 kilograms. However, after testing that took place in February and March 1941, it was discovered that he had a lifetime of about 50 shots, which added to his overweight, caused the termination of the project. The F-31, he was accepted for production as the ZiS-2 or anti-tank gun model 1941 and production started on June 1.

On 1 December 1941, the marshals Voronov and Govorov stoppèrent production after 371 copies, for three reasons:

The lack of heavy tanks German: all of that time were drilled normal distances of 45 mm gauges already in service. The piercing ammunition of 57 mm tended to cross the German tanks from side to side without causing a lot of damage inside.

Its prohibitive prices, mainly due to its long barrel of 4 m.

The absence of sufficient quality ammunition, shells piercing products at this time tend to fragment rather than punch.

In June 1942, however, his look was reused to build a new room divisionaire 76.2 mm ZIS-3, while receiving anti-tank artillery guns of 45 mm, cheaper to produce (some tank regiments received despite all of ZiS-3, capable of defeating any German tank until the end of 1942). His gun, he was installed in July on T-34 in a slightly modified form, the ZIS-4.

On 6 June 1942, Grabin made ​​a test model with a shortened barrel 63.5 calibers, called IS-1, but it was not accepted by the Red Army.

The appearance of heavy tank Tiger I and Panther changed the balance of power in favor of the Germans. The 45 mm cannon model 1942 could only pierce the side armor of the Panther, while ZiS-3 only managed to penetrate the sides and the gun mantle. Against the Tiger, ZiS-3 was effective at short range (up to 300 m), and parts of 45 mm were almost useless. The need for a more powerful gun was felt as ammunition and of sufficient quality were now available on 15 June 1943, we put into production ZiS-2 as the 57 mm anti-tank gun model 1943. The room remained in production throughout the war: 9645 copies were produced until 1945.

In 1948, the factory No. 235 testa a modernized ZIS-2 version, the V22, which was not produced. But in 1957, it produced kits night vision camera or APNZ-57-55, which were adapted from existing canons giving birth to ZiS-2N and ammunition HEAT in 1958.

Use

The ZiS-2s were used by anti-tank sections of infantry and antitank reserve units of high command, most of them being anti-tank artillery regiments (in Russian Истребительный Противотанковый Артиллерийский Полк abbreviated ИПТАП).

Canon board

ZiS-2 was also installed on some vehicles. In 1941, about a hundred guns ZiS-2 were mounted on tracked chassis T-20 Komsomolets tractor (cannon) to create the tank destroyer ZiS-30.

A version of ZiS named ZiS-2-4 was also mounted on the T-34. In 1941, seeking to improve the performance of tank T-34, members of the engineering Morozov experimented ZiS-4. Only a few copies of the T-34-57 were built, and used as tank destroyers. The idea resurfaced in 1943, when Germany began to deploy the Tiger and Panther heavily armored. Again, only a limited number of copies was produced, equipped with a thoroughly revised version of the gun, the ZiS-4M. Although the high-velocity gun has a penetration capability than that of the F-34 gun shield, the low weight of her breasts meant he could not shoot explosive ammunition adequate for general use. The ultimate solution for this tank was to design a new turret, allowing the use of a 85 mm cannon. This model was called T-34-85.

The gun ZiS-2 was also installed in at least three different prototypes of the assault gun SU-76 (SU-74, SU-76D, and SU-57B). None was put into production.

After War

Given the rapid improvement in tank armor, the ZiS-2 are quickly lost interest as qu’antichar. In the Soviet antitank artillery was replaced in mid 1950 by 100 mm guns more efficient. However, its small size and low weight made him remain in service much longer in the Soviet airborne troops. The barrel overhauled ZiS-2 was used in the airborne propelled antiaircraft gun ASU-57. It was the rapid improvement of self-propelled anti-tank weapons (RPG missiles) who signed off the final death ZiS-2. All copies survivors ZiS-2s are museum pieces or memorial.

Technical information

Main Features

Tube length:   72.9 calibres

Caliber:   57 mm

Weight:   1150 kg firing order

1800 kg in order drive.

Maximum elevation   55 °

Maximum range   8400 m

Initial speed   1000 m / s

Perforation 1000m   140 mm shield not tilted (shell BR-271N)

Rate of fire   13 to 15 strokes per minute

Crew:   4

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