Armored personnel carriers (abbreviated MTW), also known as APC (abbreviated PT) refers to are armored wheeled and tracked vehicles, which are used for transport of personnel and material. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) defines the term “armored personnel carriers (MTW)” in the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) of November 1990, in Article II, as follows:
In the German language, the terms transport tanks, personnel carriers and – for historic vehicles – armored vehicles in use. In English-speaking countries such vehicles are referred to as armored personnel carrier, abbreviated APC, in the French-speaking world as vehicle de transport de troupes, abbreviated VTT. In Russian, the names броневой транспортёр or бронированный транспортёр бронетранспортёр or abbreviated in all three cases as БТР (BTR), as usual. Transferred correspondingly, these are an armored transport vehicle.
In thevehicles falling under the above definition of the transport tank, called the half-tracks. The NVA in the GDR also used this term, including stringed but also vehicles that originally as spyware – designed and patrol NCompression and used (or were BRDM-1 BRDM-2). The army described or referred to such vehicles partly as personnel carriers (M113), as APC (TPZ Fuchs) or as armored transport vehicles (GTK Boxer).
Differentiation from other armored vehicles
Indistinguishable from the APC, the armored constructed as defined by the OSCE for the transport of an infantry group and fitted it to the soldiers normally allows, protected by the armor of the vehicle to shoot out, and usually with an integral or organic weapon Equipped of at least 20 millimeters caliber. Armored vehicles and armored personnel include the definition of the OSCE to the armored fighting vehicles.
As an armored personnel carrier look-like vehicle and armored infantry fighting vehicles like armored vehicles are referred to the same
Chassis and have a similar appearance as an armored personnel carrier or armored personnel carriers, but
not with a gun or a gun of caliber20 mm and equipped it and so constructed or modified, was that no infantry squad can be transported with it.
According to theof 12 August 1949 – for the Amelioration of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field – ambulance e have a special status. Therefore apply armored ambulance MTW not as armored fighting vehicles or armored personnel carrier look-alikes.
Available types are listed in the Protocol on Existing Types of Conventional Armaments and Equipment, which is a plant of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. The log is updated regularly. In the popular scientific literature and in common usage, the term APC is not applied stringently. Difficult is the classification of historic vehicles whose use ended before completion of the contract and are therefore not listed in the protocol.
APC in many cases serve as a base for reconnaissance and command vehicles. Perfect example of this are the American M113 and the Soviet MT-LB, serve their chassis or its variant MT LBu as chassis for a variety of command and multipurpose vehicles. These vehicles shall be as defined by the OSZW as armored personnel carrier look-alikes. Variously been or are being used as a carrier of heavy armored weapons systems. Provided that a gun with a caliber of 75 mm for direct fire or integrated organically connected to the vehicle and the curb weight is at least 6 tons, it is a combat vehicle with heavy armament.
In contrast, weapons, ground targets can primarily be fought by indirect fire, called the artillery. Modern self-propelled artillery systems are often built on a chassis derived from transport tanks. Examples include the American M109 howitzer or Soviet 2S1, the M113 armored personnel or on a by MT LBu derived chassis are built. Also, the M113 armored mortar120 mm and the Soviet 2S9 according to this definition are not armored, but belong to the artillery.
During transport tanks are armored wheeled or tracked vehicle e Halftrack e only have a meaning in a historical context. Both types have a high-road, where wheeled vehicles in the acquisition and maintenance are expensive. Modern vehicles are powered by diesel engine s. Power transmission and steering follow the usual wheeled and tracked vehicles, construction principles. At Radpanzern several axes are designed as steering axis n, in order to achieve a small turning circle.
Armor comes as aluminum or steel armor used, which can be supplemented with modern vehicles with a composite armor, as well as more active and passive elements. Be sought and achieved for newer vehicles is security against attack with medium calibers and to the action of artillery splinters (155 millimeters) and bomblets. Particular emphasis is placed in modern times to provide protection against mines. This protection is achieved not only through the armor, but mainly by the construction of the tank bottom and the arrangement of components and equipment in the vehicle. Specifies the requirements of STANAG 4569 – Protection levels for occupants of logistic and light armored vehicles.
It is armed with rapid-fire, heavy-caliber machine gun s be upgraded to the vehicles. In modern vehicles, smoke grenade launcher is available. The armament was installed in Soviet vehicles normally in a small turret. On Western vehicles the weapon system was installed as a stand which suspended the operator of enemy weapons fire. In modern vehicles is a trend to be remotely controlled weapon systems.
Time until the end of WorldI
Before the First Worldis a necessity for the protection of the troops was not recognized on the battlefield. This was due to the generally low level of motorization of the troops at the time. The battle was done on foot, moves were made also in the walk and over longer distances by rail. At the start of changed that classification. During the frontier battles against the attacking troops suffered defender who used machine guns, some devastating losses. With the onset of trench warfare the need for armored vehicles, however, occurred again in the background. Both sides took a long time no funds to the secured and defended by barbed wire with machine guns grave systems of the opponent to overcome.
This changed with the arrival of the first tank from the 1916th. Subsequently appeared, however, that although managed a break in or a break through the enemy grave systems, but that success could not be extended. The advancing with armored infantry was completely exposed to the defensive fire and was forced to take cover. This allowed them to follow the tanks at breakthrough not grave sections not take possession and Taken from the tanks do not hold ground. Therefore we first tried to transport infantry in the tanks on the battlefield. Space and breathing air that could, however, not so relevant experiments had to be canceled.
In a row from 1917 to the Mark IX was developed. The vehicle was in addition to a crew of four men up to thirty infantrymen. It was armored with steel plates with a thickness of10 mm. The Mark IX was driven by a Ricardo 6-cylinder gasoline engine with an output of 150 hp, giving the car a top speed allowed by6.9 km/ h. The Mark IX was armed with two machine guns of caliber7.7 mm. Additionally could be established by 16 infantrymen firing hatches with their handguns. Speed and level of protection were at the level of that tank. 200 Mark IX were commissioned, but completed by the armistice only three vehicles. Both for his determination, and after its construction features of the Mark IX may be referred to as the world’s first armored transport.
In the other belligerent countries did not develop such vehicles. InFranceandGermanythe production of armored vehicles was taken late, especially inRussialacked the industrial base for the development and production of such vehicles. In addition, on the eastern front was no need for armored vehicles breakthrough. Instead, in these countries, but also in theUnited Kingdom, armored cars built.
Period between the world wars
In the 1920s by Tukhachevsky and Triandafillow were (depth operation) in the Soviet Union, Liddell Hart in the United Kingdom,in France, and by Nehring and Guderian in Germany developed concepts for a mobile command and control, which propped mainly on armored troops. These ideas require, consequently, the development of corresponding mobile, protected transport vehicles. In contrast, approaches were emanating from a more static, supported on positions such as in World War I management. The development of this dispute was unsettled. Ultimately able to prevail inGermanyand the Soviet Union, the representatives of a mobile command and control, while inFrance, a struggle based on fortifications as doctrine prevailed. As a result, in many countries on armored wheeled and tracked chassis, but also half-tracks were developed. The development was a hand characterized by the search for useful technical solutions on the other. Of the confrontation between the representatives of the military-theoretical approaches that led to different and often changing requirements
In theSoviet Unionin 1930 was the armored D-14 (десантный танк Д-14) developed. The vehicle was armored 6-10 mmthick, armed with two machine guns and could hold 25 infantrymen. It was driven by a four-cylinder gasoline engine with an output of 75 hp, of the 12.6-tonne vehicle gave a speed of6 km/ h. After the construction of a prototype, the project was abandoned as the achieved performance was unsatisfactory.
The BA-22 armored personnel (БА-22) in 1938 originally as a medical vehicle (санитарно-транспортный бронеавтомобиль or бронированный мото-медицинский пункт) designed. Built on the chassis of the truck GAZ-AAA vehicle could take four to twelve wounded. The strength of the armor was6 mm, lacking a main armament. Again, the unsatisfactory performance led to the construction of a prototype for setting the project.
As a result, the Red Army had at the beginning ofdoes not have a transport vehicle.
In Britainthey developed armored transport vehicles. The role of transport vehicles took over, if necessary, especially in the colonies armored car. This had been proven on the British side during the First World War in Turkey, but also in the Arab world. The transport capacity of these vehicles was naturally limited, but the character of the armed conflict in the colonial territories required in the interwar period, not even the mass use of motorized infantry. Problems with off-road armored wheeled vehicles, however, were also evident in this period. Partly also seemingly improvised solutions were used as the Lancia Armored Lorry, which was used during the Anglo-Irish War.
Another focus was on the development of armored artillery tractors, which could carry the protected operation and ammunition. The best known example of this is the built in 1934, which was based on a tractor for farming. Originally built in different models from different manufacturers, the design was standardized in 1940. The vehicle was armed with a machine gun. The main disadvantage of the was the armor, which reached only to shoulder height of up-established operation.
Half-tracks were developed in the UKas well. The Burford Kégresse 30cwt was developed in 1926 by Burford and from 1926 to 1929, used by the British Army. Armored four to eight millimeters thick, the vehicle could hold up to eight soldiers. While the use of both the engine, as well as the off-road capability was insufficient.
InGermany, after the surrender of ten armored artillery tractors Marie II cars were fitted with an armored body. The possession of armored vehicles for police dutiesGermanyhas been given to the Treaty of Versailles. The armored vehicles were four to seven millimeters thick and default armed with a machine gun in a turret. Additional weapons could be installed.
In Germany, the development of armored vehicles by the provisions of the Versailles Treaty was inhibited. The ban on the development and construction of tanks were no suitable base vehicles. The Panzerkampfwagen I and II were to be operational until 1934 and the 1935th Both vehicles were too small and inefficient to serve as a basis for APC can. Instead we developed here armored half-track e The origin of this development was the artillery tractor Daimler-Benz ZD5.
Developed in 1937 armored Sd. Car 251 was armored 8 to12 mmthick, armed with two machine guns and powered by a Maybach engine with 100 horsepower. He could carry up to ten soldiers. The vehicle was compared to a truck and a better protection of the suspension due to a higher cross-country mobility. Novel the inclined side faces compared to the same vertical surfaces strength were better protection ergaben.1938 began series production of the armored car. At its base in the sequence created numerous command vehicles and weapons carriers.
However, were the Sd. Automotive 251-1941 less than 1000 vehicles manufactured each year. Sun 1939 only 232 armored cars were built, with another 305 vehicles instead of hardened armor plates were normal steel plates installed. When the war began, therefore, only a few units of the armed forces were equipped with this vehicle, the mass of the German infantry had to rely on transport trucks or walks and led the battle on foot.
Even in the United Statesoccupied themselves in the interwar period with the development of armored transport vehicles where development has been influenced significantly by French solutions. The Ministry of Munitions (Ordnance Department) tested 1925 two of Citroën vehicles with Kégresse drive. Cunningham & Sons in Rochester, New York, developed in 1932 with a first half-track vehicle drive. From this vehicle designated as T1, the development was to T9, which was used primarily as a tractor for the use of artillery. The White Motor Company developed an on such grounds as T7 designated half-track, in which the structure of the Panzerspähwagens M3 was used. From T7 was the T14. Finally in 1940, the different approaches have been standardized. From previous development was the M2car that could carry seven soldiers. In 1941, the M2 in the troupe was introduced.
For mechanized infantry, the vehicle was developed for the M3. Compared to the M2, the M3 build a longer and can carry up to ten soldiers. The armor is 6 to13 mm thick and prevents the fire from small arms, machine guns and against fragmentation. For the drive, the power transmission and chassis components largely from the truck production were used.
Developed in Francehalftracks with Kégresse drive as the Unic P107 formed in other countries the starting point for the development of half-track armored transport. Also in France, such vehicles were developed, could not prevail. A special feature is the small Citroen Type N, which was developed as a support vehicle for the infantry.
The Panhard 179 was a transport vehicle, which was based on the truck Panhard 165 \ 175th He could carry six soldiers were armored four to nine millimeters thick and armed with a machine gun. However, only about thirty vehicles were produced. The Berliet VPDK, another armored personnel carriers, was a three-axle vehicle. The eight to seventeen millimeters armored transport vehicle could carry up to seven soldiers. The testing of the prototype was satisfactory, but was given the easier to be manufactured Panhard 178 is preferred.
World War II
Thehad shown the superiority of a mobile command and control. Both in the Polish campaign, the Western campaign and in the early stages of the German-Soviet war managed to break through the enemy defenses and penetrate into the depth of space. The federations bypassed the defenders were wiped out in the battle of encirclement s. This was made possible through the use of armored forces, the PREVAIL not with the slow infantry, but acted independently. On the German side, however, until 1941, only a few units, referred to as armored armored half-tracks equipped because their production in 1942 was only about 1000 units a year. At the beginning of the Polish campaign were only 3 of 400 companies of motorized equipped with this vehicle. Have until the beginning of the war against the Soviet Union in the 2nd, 6th, 8th and 10 one each company will be equipped with armored personnel carriers, the tank battalions of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 10 received six armored personnel carriers.
The need for armored personnel carriers was also recognized on the Allied side. With the M2 and M3 was on the American side, a powerful vehicle. Here, too, began mass production on a large scale until 1941. So we had armored Artilleriezugmittel be used as APC. The lack of armored transport vehicles forced the Allies during the war to convert Spähpanzer and unneeded weapons carrier to transport tanks.
The developed before the war began types of armored transport vehicles have been developed and used. Conceptually new vehicles were worked out, but only arrived on the American side just before the war used. At the end of the war, the armored, armed with machine guns halftrack had established tools. These vehicles also served as a starting point for the development of a variety of reconnaissance and command vehicles and weapons carriers.
In theSoviet Unionduring the war, no armored personnel was prepared. The American M3 came in only a few hundred copies of the Red Army. The absence of an armored troop carrier impacted but increasingly from 1943 from heavy losses in the attacking infantry. So they had to the fact that infantry sat up during the attack on tanks. Although this flexibility and a certain level of protection were given a satisfactory solution provided this does not represent
Building on experience withU.S.and German armored transport has been developed since 1942 the TB-42 on the basis of the half-track armored vehicle ZIS-42. Structurally it was not significantly different from the American or German models. After testing and construction of five pre-production in mid-1943 the project was canceled because the development potential was estimated to be too low. Even the B-3 (Б-3), which was developed in 1944, took over the design features ofU.S.and German armored half-tracks. The drive has been taken over by light tanks T-70 and the truck ZIS-5. A prototype was tested, however, canceled the project due to unsatisfactory results.
In Germany, the armored personnel carrier armored Sd.Car. 251 constantly evolving. 1939 began the development of conceptually similar but smaller armored Sd.Car. 250th Production began 1940th. Of greater significance, however, was the Sd.Car. 251st However, it was not until 1942 to increase production so far, more than 1000 vehicles were delivered in the year. The lack of armored transport vehicles remained until the end of the war a problem. Therefore were arming captured French halftracks like the MCG SOMUA provisionally to transport tanks. Unic P107 also was provided with an armored building.
Attempts to develop new and innovative partially armored as the kitten could not be completed successfully. A new feature in this vehicle the pan with sides sloping surfaces and the full chain drive was suspension with torsion bar.
On the American side were the mass produced M2, M3 and its numerous variants of the dominant transport tanks during the. Several vehicles were also provided to allies. Even the American car was the basis for numerous reconnaissance and command vehicles and weapons carriers.
A new development was the M39, which was based on thetank hunting. Conceptually were here with a full tracked vehicle received new ways. The vehicle has been produced only in 1944. During the war, the vehicles were used as artillery tractors.
In other states also transport tanks were built. As with the Japanese Type 1 Ho-Ha refused to be constructively closely to theU.S. and German models.
The Canadian troops were suffering as well as the British and Australian troops to a lack of transport tanks, as for this purpose only the reasonswas available. -General therefore ordered the conversion of 72 self-propelled howitzers to transport tanks, as the artillery was replaced by other types.
During the Cold War found from 1947 to the 1980s, the Western powers led by the United Statesand the Soviet Unionagainst their European and Asian satellite state s. After the former ideas a military confrontation would be conducted mainly in Central Europe. It should be armored and mechanized infantry units are used. From the 1950s on both sides, the use of tactical nuclear weapons on the
Immediate postwar period
First, the half-tracks of World War II were further use and development. American forces were the vehicles of M2/M3-Familie and the M39 even more up to the Korean War, this war was also once used the Universal Carrier. These numerous existing armored personnel were also on the initial post-warWestern Europerebuilt armed forces.
Partially developed in close association with these vehicles as well as new types of Czechoslovak OT-810. These vehicles were sufficient, with its open, non hermetisierbaren battle space but soon no longer meet the requirements. Even the half-track chassis in design and manufacture was too costly, an equal-road capability could also be achieved by tracked vehicles, and increasingly, Radpanzern. By the late 1950s, it disappeared so as constructive solution. One exception is the Iranian Shahid Farsi, which was developed in the 1980s, but did not enter into production.
In theSoviet Unionwith the ZIS-153 was also still a halftrack developed after they turned to face new design approaches.
In the 1950s, recorded from several trends in the development of armored personnel carriers. In theU.S., the concept of a light armored vehicle developed on a fully tracked chassis. The box-shaped structure had straight side walls. This reduced compared to tapered sidewalls to protect, but it led to a larger and more usable space. The concept is in the M75 to recognize and already led to the M59 for M113. A similar approach was followed at times even in theSoviet Union. The 1954 recorded in the armament of the Soviet Army BTR-50, however, was a caterpillar with a closed, hermetisierbaren battle space. He convinced as personnel carriers not, however, been the basis for numerous command vehicles.
In theSoviet Unionthey preferred the concept of Radpanzers. Both the BTR-40 as well as the BTR-152 were built on conventional chassis, four-wheel drive truck and leaned against the design of the vehicles of World War II. A similar approach has been in theUKfor Humber Pig followed. They soon decided, however, on the use of truck chassis. After the testing of the ZIL-135 and BTR-60 sat down in the Soviet Army armored personnel carriers through. The first open-topped BTR-60P was as BTR-60PA a closed combat zone, as BTR-60PB a turret to hold the weapons. The latter was the starting point of a series that the BTR-60 on the BTR-70 to the BTR-80 is sufficient. For these vehicles was the arrangement of the engine in the rear. Thus, the crew was forced to leave the vehicle on the side walls, which exposed them against enemy weapons fire. Also, the engine plant was overall problematic. As a suitably powerful and lighter diesel engine to the 1980 was not available, had the BTR-60 can be equipped with two petrol engines. Only the BTR-80 was equipped with only a diesel engine. The Soviet armored personnel were, as many other Soviet vehicles, floats, to reflect the requirements of the Central European theater of war accounts.
Another trend was the derivation of team transporters from reconnaissance vehicles and light tanks. Thus, in theUnited Kingdomfrom the Saladin the Saracen developed inFrancefrom the AMX-13 AMX-13VTT and from the EWC-75 EWC TT.
A special role was taken by the Federal Republic of Germany. With the HS 30, which was developed on behalf of the Bundeswehr at Hispano-Suiza, a conceptually new vehicle was put into service. It was a fully tracked vehicle, the 20-mm machine gun was mounted in a turret. The car proved to be not. Instead of just ordered 10,000 2176 HS 30 were produced. With his concept of HS 30, however, was one of the starting points of the development of armored n In his role, he was replaced in the army by the(IFV).
In the 1960s continued this trend. The M113 has been continuously developed and built in large numbers. It is found today in almost all NATO forces as well as almost all current and former Confederate armies of theUnited States. On the basis of the M113 made numerous reconnaissance and command vehicles and various weapons carrier. The M113 and its versions approximately 80,000 vehicles were produced. The Soviet MT-LB was developed as an armored artillery tractor. Three to ten millimeters thick armor and armed with a machine gun in the turret, but he acquired quite as APC. Contrary to the BTR-50, the engine was now at the front of the vehicle, making the installation of rear doors like the American M113 possible. A special role among the tracked vehicles takes the LVTP-7 one, which was designed as an amphibious vehicle for landing operations.
International during this period, numerous armored personnel carriers have been developed. It sat down initially by three-and four-axle vehicles lying at the front drive system. Examples include the Czechoslovak OT-64, or the Dutch YP-408. In the developed since1961 inthe Federal Republic of Germany TPz Fuchs is a three-axle wheeled tank. Despite his name, he was less used as a transport vehicle for infantry rather than as a support for various reconnaissance and command systems.
What was new was the trend toward smaller Radpanzern that could be used as scout vehicles. In addition, these vehicles were also suitable for counter-insurgency and unrest. The American V-150 was developed for these tasks in 1964. As is usual with other transport tanks, were derived from the type command vehicles and weapons carriers.
Even in the 1970s, remained the M113 and the Soviet BTR-60, from 1971, complemented by improved BTR-70, the world’s dominant APC.
From the armored chassis with full chain, the more armed and usually more armored infantry fighting vehicle was developed, which was in many cases the mechanized infantry combat vehicle. Due to high capital and operational costs, the infantry are not equipped with fully armored, so that mechanized units were equipped with both transport, as well as armored vehicles.
Even when fully tracked vehicles began a trend for most all-purpose vehicles. One example is the FV103 Spartan, an amalgam of theVehicle (Tracked). Other members of the family include the FV106 Scimitar FV107 Samson or.
The trend towards the development of smaller, multi-purpose wheeled tank continued. An example of this is from 1979, developed in Austria Pandur or the Swiss Piranha, which formed the basis for a whole each vehicle family. The same applies to the French Véhicule de l’avant blindé, abbreviated to VAB. Even countries that had no or only poorly developed defense industry such as Spainand Portugaldeveloped, light armored personnel carriers. This has been facilitated not least be able to export these inexpensive vehicles in many Third Worldcountries. The Saxon was also a lighter armored personnel carriers. The first specimens from 1983, the mechanized infantry battalions of the British Rhine Army were equipped.
In addition to the M113, which due to its dissemination has a special role, had at the end of the 1980s the multi-axle wheeled tank established standard for APC. Sufficient terrain, armed and armored, he found world wide distribution.
In the 1980s, developed the tendency to derive from stronger armed infantry fighting vehicles or armored reconnaissance vehicles, as is the M3A1. Generally tracked vehicles in this class can be used universally as a transport vehicle, a reconnaissance vehicle, Artilleriezugmittel and weapon carriers. Partly also transport tanks were equipped with powerful weapons. This gave the LAV-25, a 25-mm machine gun.
A special feature represent those derived from more armored vehicles armored The Israeli armored Achzarit was converted from captured Arab tanks Soviet production. Despite his strong armor he is armed only with machine guns, and thus by definition an APC. When OT-90 armored personnel carrier, the chassis of the BMP-1 was combined with a small turret that takes a machine gun as a weapon. A similar path you went toBulgaria, where they combined the chassis of the 122-mm 2S1 Sfl with thetowerofBMP-2.
The Protocol on existing types of conventional armaments and equipment leads to the following armored personnel carriers:
- OT-62 (TOPAS)
- OT-64 (SKOT)
- FUG D-442
- PSZH D-944
- V 150S
- AFV 432
- AMX 13VTT
- EWC ETT
- TPz fox-1
- YP 408
- 6614 / G
- Chaimite V200
Development from 1990
From the 1990s the fight by fighting asymmetric opponents in importance. In contrast, resigned the fight against armored and mechanized forces. Consequently move also in the development and use of armored transport priorities. Since conventional forces were reduced in most developed countries, there armored repressed largely the armored vehicle as the mechanized infantry.
In the remaining armored transport is a trend for greater armament, so that the boundary is blurred to protect tanks. When Stryker Armored Vehicle, the installed remotely operated weapon platform Protector M151 allows the installation of various types of weapons. Also the LAV III and the NZLAV are armed with 25-mm machine guns, the Piranha V. With a 30-mm automatic cannon, as the Russian BTR-90, which continues the series of BTR-60-70-80 Asimilar development is the German armored transport vehicle boxer. Rarer than the aforementioned armored personnel are full-track vehicles. The Russian BTR-T comes a chassis derived from the T-55 is used.
At the same time, however, was also a need for lighter armored, versatile vehicles. Usually, little or only partially armored, they are as protected vehicles, especially in the armed forces as protected Command and Function vehicles - called GFF. Generally in these vehicles also grenade launcher n be upgraded or at least provide for the possibility of a scaffolding. Armored transport vehicles – GTF in contrast, are generally unarmed, a machine gun but can usually be upgraded.
Also internationally protected vehicles are being developed that also take on the role of the transport tank. Russian examples are the BPK-3924 (ВПК-3924), or GAZ-2975 Tigr, an example from France, the Petit Véhicule Protégé, the Australian Bushmaster Protected Mobility Vehicle.