Franciszek Alter

Francis Xavier Alter (born November 22,1889 in Lviv, d. Jan. 23,1945 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen) – Brigadier General of the Polish Army.

Curriculum vitae

Youth and World War I

In the years 1900-1905 he attended in Lviv to the second school. In 1905, he joined the Austrian Corps of Cadets at the 95 Infantry Regiment in Lviv. After he finished in 1909, he was assigned to 56 Infantry Regiment, where he served until 1912, and again in the period from January 1917 to January 1918, as a platoon leader and company. In the years 1912-1916, and from January to October 1918 he served in command completions in Wadowice.

Polish-Bolshevik War

November 1, 1918 he volunteered for service in the reborn Polish Army. He was ordered to organize an infantry battalion in Wadowice. During the war he served with the Bolsheviks in the 12th Infantry Regiment, in which he was the adjutant of the regiment commander and battalion commander III.


After the war, he remained in the 12th Infantry Regiment, serving as a deputy and commander of the regiment. He held this position until May 3, 1922. From August 1922 to January 1931 he commanded 77 Infantry Regiment in Lida. In the meantime (January 5 – May 23, 1923) he was held regimental commanders course inExperimentalTrainingCenterin Rembertów. January 21, 1931 he was appointed commander of the infantry divisional 14 Infantry Division in. During this period (10 November 1932 – 10 August 1933 he was the senior commanders of the course student at the Centre for Advanced Studies in Warsaw Military. In 1934 he became commander of the 14th DP, and from 1936 commanded the 25th Infantry Division inKalisz.

The Second World War

War withGermanyhas come to the forefront in the composition of the 25 DP Army “Poznan” General Tadeusz Kutrzeby. In early September 1939 the division took part in battles in Wielkopolska, where, however, had, along with other units of the Army to withdraw. From September 9 participated in theBattleof Bzura composed GO “Circle” General Brig. Edmund Knoll-Kownacki. Then on September 21 after heavy fighting in Kampinos broke heavily weakened toWarsaw. It fought in the defense of the capital in the section Warsaw-West to its surrender on Sept. 28. At the time of the surrender of Gen. capital Alter had the opportunity to departure by plane abroad, but did not use the remaining to the end of his soldiers.


In captivity, he was offered the German signing of German nationality list, but rejected suggestions that, for which he was persecuted by the camp authorities. From 1941 he lived in Oflag VII A Murnau. In 1944 he was seriously ill was transferred to a hospital inGarmisch-Partenkirchen. He died in hospital on Jan. 23, 1945, buried in Ga-Pa. Later, the ashes of the camp was moved to the cemetery in Murnau.


The Austrian Army

Polish Army

Orders and decorations

  • Silver Cross of the Order of Military Virtue War
  • Knight’s Cross of the Order of the Renaissance Polish (2004)
  • Cross ofIndependence
  • Cross of Valour – four times


  • Peter Stawecki, Biographical Dictionary of the Polish Army generals 1918-1939, Publisher Bellona, Warsaw 1994, ISBN 83-11-08262-6
  • Tadeusz Kryska-Karski and Stanislaw Zurakowski, Generals Polish Independent, Editions Meeting, Warsaw 1991, p. II uzup. and improved

Brigadier Generals of theSecondRepublic

Officers Corps of theSecondRepublic

People fromKalisz

People connected with Lviv

Awarded the Knight’s Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta Polish

Recipients of the Cross ofIndependence

Awarded the Silver Cross of the Order of Military Virtue (government in exile)

Awarded the Cross of Valour

Participants in the September campaign

Participants in the Polish-Soviet War

German POW Prisoners

Born in 1889

Died in 1945


You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.

Leave a Reply

Powered by WordPress