Franklin Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt

This article is about a president of america during World War II.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, born January 30,1882 in Hyde Park, in upstate New York, and died April 12,1945 in Warm Springs, Georgia State, is an American statesman, thirty -second President of the United States. As central figure of the twentieth century, he was the onlyU.S.president to be elected four times. In his fourth term, he was carried away by the disease a few months after the start of it.

Faced with the Great Depression,Rooseveltbegan to implement the New Deal, a program of economic recovery and fight against unemployment. He reformed theU.S.banking system, and founded the Social Security. He created many government agencies such as the Works Progress Administration, the National Recovery Administration and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration. He managed to develop a new way of presidency, more interventionist and more active with his team of advisors, called Brain Trust.

Rooseveltwas one of the main players in World War II and broke with the traditional isolationism of his country. Even before the outbreak of war in theUnited States, he launched the Lend-Lease program to provide the Allies with war materials. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, he assumed full duties as commander in chief of theU.S.military prepared well and the Allied victory. He held a prominent role in the transformation of the world after the conflict, and particularly inspired the founding of the UN. Criticized by some, admired by others, he left a strong imprint on the history of his country and the world.


Youth and Family Origins

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born January 30,1882 inHyde Park, a town in theHudsonValleyapproximately 160 miles north ofNew York. His parents belonged to two old patrician families ofNew York.

His father, James Roosevelt Sr. wealthy entrepreneur, had a Dutch ancestor, Nicholas Roosevelt, based inNew Amsterdam, whose progeny give another U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin Delano married the niece Eleanor.

His mother, Sara Ann Delano, was ancestors Franco-Luxembourg. His maternal grandfather, Warren Delano Jr., who made his fortune in the opium trade with China, was a descendant of Philippe dela Noye(1602-1681), born of the illustrious House of Lannoy, the One of the passengers who landed at Plymouth Fortune in November 1621, joining the first settlers of the Mayflower. Among the numerous descendants of Philippe dela Noye, it gave a few decades before another president in theUnited States, General Ulysses S. Grant.

Franklin Roosevelt was the only son, he grew up under the influence of a possessive mother and had a happy childhood and lonely. He often spent his holidays in the family home in Campobello Island located inCanada. With many trips to Europe,Rooseveltbecame familiar with German and French. He received an aristocratic education, learned to ride horses, practiced many sports such as polo, rowing, tennis and shooting.

At the age of fourteen, he entered a private school and elitist, theGrotonSchoolinMassachusetts. During his studies, he was influenced by his master, the Rev. Endicott Peabody, who taught him the Christian duty of charity and the concept of service for the common good. In 1899, Franklin Roosevelt continued his studies first at Harvard, where he lived in luxurious Adams House and obtained a Bachelor of Arts. He entered the fraternity Alpha Delta Phi and participated in the student newspaper The Harvard Crimson. He lost his father who died in 1900. At that time, his distant cousin and uncle by marriage Theodore Roosevelt became president of theUnited Statesand became its model policy. It was the beginning of the Progressive Era (“Progressive Era”) that profoundly remodeled the American political landscape, and it is within the Democratic Party he entered politics. He also belonged to the Freemasons and was initiated inNew YorkOctober 11, 1911.

In 1902, during a reception at the White House, Franklin Roosevelt met his future wife Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, who was also the niece of President Theodore Roosevelt. Eleanor and Franklin Roosevelt had a common ancestor, the Dutchman Claes van Roosevelt Martenzen who arrived in New Amsterdam (laterNew York) in the 1640s. His two grandchildren, son, Johannes and Jacobus founded the two branches of the family, that of the Oyster Bay andHyde Park. Eleanor and Theodore Roosevelt were descended from the elder branch, while FDR came from the younger branch, that of Jacobus. In 1904, Franklin Roosevelt went to law school atColumbiaUniversitybut abandoned his studies in 1907 without a diploma. He passed the bar exam inNew Yorkin 1908 and was engaged in a business firm prestigious Wall Street, Carter Ledyard & Milburn.

Family life

Eleanor Roosevelt married March 17,1905 inNew York, despite opposition from her mother. At the ceremony, Theodore Roosevelt replaced the deceased father of the bride, Elliott Roosevelt. The young couple then settled on the family estate of Springwood inHyde Park. WhileFranklinwas a charismatic and sociable, his wife was at that time stood shy away from social events to raise her children:

Anna Eleanor (1906 – 1975)

James (1907 – 1991)

Franklin Delano Jr. (March 3, 1909 – November 7, 1909)

Elliott (1910 – 1990)

Franklin Delano, Jr. (1914 – 1988)

John Aspinwall (1916 – 1981)

Franklin Roosevelt had several love affairs during his marriage. In 1914 he maintained a relationship with his wife’s secretary, Lucy Page Mercer Rutherfurd. In September 1918, Eleanor found written correspondence of the lovers in the affairs of her husband. She threatened the latter to seek divorce. Under pressure from his mother and his wife,Rooseveltpromised to never see Lucy Mercer and the couple saved appearances. Eleanor stood in a separate house to Valkill, while continuing to see her husband.

The couple’s children have for their tumultuous lives of: 19 marriages, 15 divorces and 22 children for all five children. Four son participated in the Second World War as officers and were decorated for gallantry in action. After the conflict, they have led careers in business and politics. Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. represented theUpper West Sidein Congress for three terms, and James Roosevelt for the 26th District of California for six terms.

Political debut (1910-1920)

Roosevelt did not like particularly his legal career and did not finish his law studies begun atColumbiaUniversity. He turned to politics at the earliest opportunity. In 1910 he ran for the office of Democratic Senator for the 26th District of New York State. He was elected and took office on 1 January 1911 the Senate of Albany. He quickly took the head of a parliamentary group of reformers who opposed patronage of Tammany Hall, the “machine” politics of the Democratic Party inNew York.Rooseveltbecame a popular figure among Democrats in the state and was re-elected November 5, 1912 with the support of the journalist Louis Howe, and resigned on 17 March. In 1914 he ran for the primary for Senate seat but was defeated by the candidate supported by Tammany Hall, James W. Gerard.

In 1913, Roosevelt was appointed Assistant Secretary of the Navy by President Woodrow Wilson, and worked for Josephus Daniels, Secretary of the Navy of theUnited States. Between 1913 and 1917, he worked to develop the U.S. Navy and founded the United States Navy Reserve. During the First World War,Rooseveltshowed special attention to the navy and campaigned for the development of submarines. To counter the German submarine attacks against Allied shipping, he proposed installing a minefield in the North Sea, betweenNorwayandScotland. In 1918, he inspected theU.S.naval facilities inBritainand went to the front inFrance. During his visit he met Winston Churchill for the first time. After the armistice of 11 November 1918, he was responsible for overseeing the demobilization and left his position as Assistant Secretary of the Navy in July 1920.

In 1920, the Democratic National Convention chose Roosevelt as its candidate for vice-president of theUnited States, along the Ohio Governor James M. Cox. In a speech inButte(Montana) August 18, 1920, he put forward his role in drafting the constitution imposed onHaitiin 1915: “I wrote myself the constitution ofHaiti, and I think this constitution is rather good. “The Cox-Roosevelt ticket was defeated by Republican Warren Harding became president. After this failure, he retired from politics and worked inNew York, he was vice president of a company by selling shares and director of a firm of business.

“Crossing the Desert” and illness (1921-1928)

In August 1921, while vacationing at Campobello Island,Rooseveltcontracted an illness which was thought to be the time polio. The result was a paralysis of his lower limbs: he was then 39 years. It never resigned himself to accept the disease, showed courage and optimism. He tried many treatments: in 1926, he bought a property inWarm Springs,Georgia, where he founded a hydrotherapy center for polio patients, the Roosevelt Warm Springs Institute for Rehabilitation, which is still active. The day of his first presidential inauguration, he received personally paralytic children. During his presidency, he helped found the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis.Roosevelthid his deteriorating health to be reelected. In public, he walked with a cane or splints; in private, he was traveling in a wheelchair. During his public appearances, he was supported by a son or a paramedic. A 2003 study showed thatRooseveltwas not reached by polio but by Guillain-Barre syndrome.

Governor Roosevelt ofNew York(1928-1932)

Roosevelt was careful to keep in touch with the Democratic Party and allied himself with Alfred E. Smith, former governor ofNew Jersey. He approached the Tammany Hall and was eventually elected governor ofNew Yorkby a narrow majority and had to live with a Republican majority in Congress.

He took his office as governor in 1929 and immediately began a policy innovation and daring for its time: it is in favor of campaigns (reforestation, soil conservation), established social programs such as the Office of Temporary Emergency Relief ( Temporary Emergency Relief Administration) which provided direct financial assistance to the unemployed. Two strong concepts, also a remarkable pragmatism, dominated his public activities. Firstly the idea that it was often necessary to substitute the collective freedom of individual freedom, but also his great distrust of the idea of ​​unrestricted competition (“cooperation must intervene where competition stops” and that it “may be useful to a certain limit but not beyond”). So he reduced the duration of working time for women and children, launched a program to improve hospitals, prisons and reinforced the public authority.

His critics accused him of being “socialist” in a pejorative sense.Rooseveltdid indeed show great tolerance on issues of immigration and religion, tolerance manifested by its reserves on the quota policy on the prohibition and the infighting in the Democratic Party between Jews, Catholics and Protestants.

It was at this time thatRooseveltbegan to assemble a team of advisors including Frances Perkins and Harry Hopkins, in anticipation of his election as president. The main weak point of his tenure was the corruption of Tammany Hall inNew York. Roosevelt was reelected in 1930 against Republican Charles Egbert Tuttle for a second term as governor ofNew York.

The same year, the Boy Scouts of America (BSA) awarded him the highest award for an adult, the Silver Buffalo Award, in honor of his commitment to youth.Rooseveltsupported the first Jamboree and became honorary president of BSA.

The presidential election of 1932

Rooseveltreplaced the Catholic Alfred E. Smith to head the Democratic Party of New York in 1928. Roosevelt’s popularity in the most populous state of theUnionmade him a potential candidate for the presidential election of 1932. His opponents for the nomination, Albert Ritchie, Governor of Maryland and W. H. Murray, one of Oklahoma, were local dignitaries and less credible. John Nance Garner, candidate of the conservative wing of the party, resigned the appointment in exchange for the post of vice president, a position he assumed until 1941.Rooseveltstood facing the hostility of the party chairman, John Raskob, but received financial support from William Randolph Hearst, Joseph P. Kennedy, William G. McAdoo and Henry Morgenthau.

The presidential election took place in the context of the Great Depression and new political alliances entailed. In 1932,Roosevelthad physically recovered from his illness, if not the use of his legs, and he did not hesitate to embark on a grueling election campaign. In his many campaign speeches,Rooseveltattacked the failures of the incumbent President Herbert Hoover and denounced his inability to bring the country out of crisis. He spoke especially to the poor, workers, ethnic minorities, the urban and Southern whites by developing a program called New Deal: he uttered this phrase during the Democratic convention inChicagoJuly 2, 1932. He developed primarily economic issues and proposed a reduction of bureaucracy and a partial abolition of Prohibition.Roosevelt’s program did not obey to any ideology, although it was inspired social democratic and Keynesian, and was not specific on how that should be implemented to help the poorest Americans.

Roosevelt’s campaign was a success for several reasons. Firstly the candidate showed pedagogy and was able to convince the Americans by his oratorical skills. He traveled almost 50,000 kilometers across the country to convince his constituents. Moreover,Roosevelthad matured politically under the influence of figures like Louis Howe, one of his associates, or Josephus Daniels, his minister of the Navy. Do not overlook the role of advisers of the governor he was, like Raymond Moley, Rexford Tugwell, Adolf Berle, all three researchers and academics, usually ofColumbia, approached by Samuel Rosenman onRooseveltspeechwriter. These men, with Bernard Baruch, a former head of the Financial War Industries Board during World War I, and Harry Hopkins, his confidant, who later formed the famous “Brain Trust” of the president. ButRoosevelt’s success was largely due to the extreme unpopularity of President Hoover and his policy of “laissez faire” has largely worsened the crisis of 1929.

On November 8, 1932,Rooseveltcollected 57% of the vote and the Electoral College was favorable in 42 states on 48. The Congress had won the Democratic Party. Historians and political scientists see that the elections of 1932-1936 were based around a new coalition of Democrats and the fifth party system.

February 15, 1933, Roosevelt escaped an assassination attempt as he gave an impromptu speech from the back of his convertible atBayfrontParkinMiami,Florida. The author of the shots was Joseph Zangara, an Italian anarchist whose motives were personal. He was sentenced to 80 years in prison, then the death penalty, as Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak died of wounds sustained during the attack.

Presidency (1933-1945)

Franklin Roosevelt took office as President of theUnited StatesMarch 4, 1933, the country was plunged into a severe economic crisis: 24.9% of the workforce. More than 12 million people were unemployed then and two million Americans were homeless. Between 1930 and 1932, 773 banks went bankrupt. In his inaugural address,Rooseveltdenounced the responsibility of bankers and financial crisis, he presented his program directly to Americans through a series of radio talks known as the fireside chats. The first cabinet of theRooseveltadministration included a woman for the first time in American political history: it was Frances Perkins, who served as labor secretary until June 1945.

First term (1933-1937)

The First New Deal (1933-1934)

Early in his term,Roosevelttook many steps to reassure the population and improve the economy. Between March 4 and June 16, he proposed 15 new laws which were all passed by Congress. The first New Deal was not a socialist political andRooseveltruled instead at the center. Between March 9 and June 16, 1933, Hundred Days period corresponding to the duration of the session of Congress, it passed a record number of bills that were readily adopted by the Democratic majority, the support of senators as George Norris, Robert F. Wagner and Hugo Black, but also through the action of his Brain Trust, the team of advisors drawn largely from Columbia University. To explain these political successes, historians also cite seductive abilityRooseveltand its ability to use the media.

Like his predecessor Herbert Hoover,Rooseveltbelieved that the economic crisis resulted from a lack of confidence which resulted in a decrease in consumption and investment. So he tried to show his optimism. When bank failures of March 4, 1933, his inaugural speech was heard on radio by some two million Americans, included this statement famous: “the only thing we have to fear is fear itself”. The next day, the President declared a holiday for banks to stem the panic caused by the bankruptcy and announced a plan to reopen them next.

On March 9, 1933 the Emergency Banking Act was passed by the Congress, followed on April 5 of Presidential Executive Order 6102 requiring owners of gold pieces to return U.S. Treasury. In thirty days, one third of the gold in circulation was returned to the Treasury. On August 28 President Roosevelt issued a further order requiring all owners to register their gold holdings to the Treasury.

Roosevelt continuedHoover’s program against unemployment under the responsibility of the new Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). He also removed the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to become a major source of financing of railways and industry. Among the most popular new branches of theRooseveltincluded (Civilian Conservation Corps – CCC), which hired 250,000 unemployed young people in various local projects. Congress gave the new regulatory powers to the Federal Trade Commission and mortgaged to millions of farmers and landowners. In addition, 19 April, theU.S.abandoned the gold standard, which had the effect of stimulating the economy.

Economic reforms were undertaken through the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) of 1933. However the Supreme Court declared unconstitutional by a decision of 27 May 1935. The NIRA established economic planning, a minimum wage and a reduction in working hours reduced to 36 hours per week.

Rooseveltinjected huge public funds into the economy: the NIRA spent $ 3.3 billion through the Public Works Administration under the direction of Harold Ickes. The President worked with Republican Senator George Norris to create the largest industrial enterprise government in American history, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA): it allowed the building of dams and hydroelectric stations, modernization of agriculture and improved living conditions in theTennesseeValley. In April 1933, the repeal of the Volstead Act which defined the prohibition, allowed the State to levy new taxes.

Roosevelttried to keep his campaign pledges on public spending cuts, but he aroused the opposition of veterans of World War I by reducing their pensions. He made severe cuts in the budget of hosts, he lowered his salary and the number of employees by the Economy Act on March 20, 1933. It also reduced spending in education and research.

The rehabilitation of agriculture was one ofRoosevelt’s priorities as reflected in the first Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) that was to go up farm prices. His action was criticized because it required the destruction of crops while part of the population was malnourished. In addition, the Farm Credit Act was passed to reduce the indebtedness of farmers.

Following the severe winter during 1933-1934, the Civil Works Administration was established and employed up to 4.5 million people, the agency hired workers for a range of activities such as excavation archaeological or painting murals. Despite its successes, it was dissolved after the winter.

The Second New Deal and the Welfare State

In 1934, Franklin Roosevelt’s policy was directed to the left with the creation of the welfare state (welfare state).

The parliamentary elections of 1934 gaveRoosevelta large majority in both houses of Congress. The president was able to continue its reforms to boost consumption and reduced unemployment. However, the unemployment rate remained at a very high level (12.5% ​​in 1938). May 6, 1934, the President created the Administration for the progress of work (Works Progress Administration), headed by Harry Hopkins. It employed up to 3.3 million people in 1938 on various projects: construction of roads, bridges, public buildings… The teachers taught English to immigrants, the actors played up in small towns, painters like Jackson Pollock received orders. The National Youth Administration (National Youth Administration) was founded in June 1935 to reduce youth unemployment and encourage them to study. The Administration for resettlement (Resettlement Administration) was established in April 1935 and was placed under the leadership of Rexford Tugwell to reduce poverty among farmers. It was replaced by the Administration for Agricultural Safety (Farm Security Administration) in 1937.

May 28, 1934,Rooseveltmet with British economist Keynes, interview went wrong, it felt that the American president did not understand the economy.

June 6, 1934, the Securities Exchange Act allowed the creation of the Securities and Exchange Commission (Commission Securities and exchanges) which regulated and controlled financial markets.Rooseveltappointed Joseph P. Kennedy, father of John F. Kennedy, as the first chairman of the SEC.

The Social Security Act provided for the first time at the federal level the establishment of a social security for retirees, the poor and sick. The Pensions Act was signed August 14, 1935. Funding should be based on contributions from employers and employees not to increase spending from the federal government.

Senator Robert Wagner wrote the Wagner Act, which was later adopted as the National Labor Relations Act. This law signed July 5, 1935 which established the federal right for workers to organize unions, bargain collectively. It founded the National Bureau of relationships within the work (NLRB) that would protect employees against abuses by employers. The number of union members increased sharply from that time.

The second New Deal was attacked by demagogues like Father Coughlin, Huey Long or Francis Townsend. But it also aroused the opposition of more conservative Democrats led by Al Smith. With the American Liberty League, it criticizedRooseveltand compared to Karl Marx and Lenin. May 27, 1935, the Supreme Court of theUnited Statesobjected to one of New Deal legislation, giving the federal government power over industry. It decreed unanimously that the National Recovery Act (NRA) was unconstitutional because it gave legislative power to the president. It was a first defeat forRooseveltbut also for the federal response to state and individual interests. The business was equally hostile to the “type of the White House”. Finally,Rooseveltwas criticized for having dug the federal budget deficit, which grew from $2.6 billion in 1933 to $4.4 billion in 1936.

Favorable to the PAYG,Roosevelttold a reporter who suggested him to finance pensions through taxes, “I guess you’re right on an economic plan, but funding is not an economic problem. This is a purely political issue. We have implemented the payroll tax to give contributors a legal right, moral and political of their pensions. With these contributions, no damn politician can ever dismantle my social security. ”

Second term (1936-1940)

After four-year presidency, the economy had improved but remained fragile. In 1937, 7.7 million Americans were unemployed 14% of the workforce. Presidential elections in November 1936,Rooseveltfaced with a Republican candidate with no real major, Alfred Landon, whose party was disunited. He managed to unite under its banner all the opposing forces “financiers, bankers and reckless speculators.” This whole election of the multiethnic city then became the main reservoir of votes of the Democratic Party.Rooseveltwas reelected for a second term. His landslide victory in 46 states on 48, obtained with a gap of 11 million votes, contradicting all polls and predictions of the press. It indicated a strong popular support for his New Deal policy and resulted in a Democratic majority in both houses of Congress.

Compared to the period of his first term, some important laws were adopted at the second term: and the United States Housing Authority which was part of the New Deal (1937), a second adjustment in agriculture and the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) of 1938 which created a minimum wage. When the economy deteriorated again late 1937,Rooseveltlaunched an aggressive program of stimulation thereof by asking Congress to $5 billion to launch public works in order to create 3.3 million jobs in 1938.

The Supreme Court of theUnited Stateswas the main obstacle preventingRooseveltto deliver its programs.Rooseveltsurprised Congress in 1937 by proposing a law giving it the opportunity to appoint five new judges. This request was met with widespread opposition including even members of his own party whose Vice President John Nance Garner as it seemed to go against the separation of powers.Roosevelt’s proposals were rejected as well. Deaths and retirements of members of the Supreme Court nevertheless allowedRooseveltto appoint new judges fairly quickly with little controversy. Between 1937 and 1941, he appointed eight liberal judges to the Supreme Court.

The stock market experienced a relapse in the summer of 1937, production fell and unemployment rose to 19% of the workforce in 1938. In 1938, the President responded by asking a financial extension to Congress, by introducing legislation on housing assistance, helping farmers (the second AAA in February 1938). On June 25, 1938 the law on wages and working hours (Fair Labor Standards Act) was passed. The workweek was then reduced to 44 hours to 40 hours.

Rooseveltwon the support of American Communists and union coalition who knew when a sharp rise but they parted due to infighting within the AFL and the CIO led by John L. Lewis. These quarrels weakened the party in the elections of 1938 to 1946.

Roosevelt’s second term was marked by the rise of opposition. The latter was expressed first in the cons-powers, the Supreme Court and Congress, including Democrats in the ranks, but also in newspapers where the cartoons and editorials did not hesitate to criticize presidential action. The press statement said the scandals that affected the president’s family. The Conservatives accused him of being too close to the Communists and attacked the WPA. The splinter groups and fascist leaders such as Father Coughlin’s Christian Front, launched a crusade against the Jew Deal but found little response.

Determined to overcome conservative opposition among congressional Democrats (mostly from southern states),Rooseveltbecame involved himself in the primaries of 1938 by providing support to people in favor of reforming the New Deal. Roosevelt only succeeded in destabilizing the conservative Democrat fromNew York City. He had to preserve the political balance in order to retain its majority and spared the Southern Democrats in the country did not undermine segregation against blacks.

In the elections of November 1938, the Democrats lost seven Senate seats and 71 seats in Congress. The losses were concentrated among pro-New Deal Democrats. When Congress was convened in 1939, Republicans led by Senator Robert Taft formed a Conservative coalition with conservative southern Democrats of the country which preventedRooseveltto transform its programs in law. The 1938 law on the minimum wage was thus the last reform of the New Deal to be passed by Congress.

Balance sheet of the New Deal

There is no evidence that the New Deal had any effectiveness in the fight against the crisis, which lasted untilAmericamobilizes its economy for World War II. His success was no denying the social level. The policy pursued by President Franklin Roosevelt changed the country through reforms and not revolution.

Economically, the situation was better in 1933 which had been the most difficult moment of the crisis: industrial production had recovered its 1929 level. Building upon 100 the situation of 1929, GDP in constant prices in 1939 was 103, 96 for GDP / capita. However, unemployment was still solid: 17% of theU.S.workforce was unemployed in 1939 and affected 9.5 million people. They were receiving unemployment benefits, which represented an improvement over the prior New Deal. The labor force grew by 3.7 million people between 1933 and 1939.

The New Deal also inaugurated a period of state intervention in many sectors of theU.S.economy: although there had been no nationalization, as inFranceof the Popular Front, federal agencies had expanded their activities, employed more officials from the university. Thus, the New Deal measures had laid the groundwork for future superpower. On the political, executive and presidential cabinet had strengthened their influence, without tipping the country into dictatorship.Roosevelthad been able to establish a direct link with the people, by the many press conferences he had held, but also by the use of radio (“fireside chats”) and his many travels. The New Deal had a democratization of culture and artists of reconciliation with society. The spirit of the New Deal had permeated the country: cinema and literature focused more on the poor and social problems. The Works Projects Administration (1935) started out many projects in the arts and literature, especially the five programs of the famous Federal One. The WPA enabled the production of 1 566 new paintings, 17,744 sculptures, 108,099 oil paintings and develop art education. At the end of the New Deal, the record was mixed: while American artists were supported by public funds and had gained national recognition, this cultural policy was interrupted by World War II andRoosevelt’s death in 1945.

Foreign policy (1933-1941)

Between isolationism and interventionism

Between the coming to power of Adolf Hitler and the outbreak of war of theUnited States,Roosevelthad to take a stand on various international issues in light of Congress and the American public. It was divided between interventionism defined by President Wilson and the isolationism that was to keep his country out of European affairs.Roosevelt’s foreign policy was the subject of much controversy.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt knew Europe, Latin America andChina. Early in his political career, he was initially a supporter of interventionism and concerned aboutU.S.influence abroad: in the 1920s, he supported the ideas. In 1933, he appointed Secretary of State Cordell Hull and it was against economic protectionism and withdrawal of theUnited States. On 16 November 1933, theU.S.government officially recognized theSoviet Unionestablished diplomatic relations with that country.

However, Roosevelt quickly changed position under pressure from Congress, the pacifism of nationalism or of public opinion, and brought theU.S.into a phase of isolationism, while morally condemning the aggression of dictatorships fascists.

The good president inaugurated the “good neighbor policy” (Good Neighboring policy) with Latin America and moved away from theMonroedoctrine that had prevailed since 1823. In December 1933, he signed the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, and renounced the right to intervene unilaterally in the affairs ofSouth America. In 1934, he repealed the Platt Amendment, which allowedWashingtonto intervene in the internal affairs of theRepublicofCuba. TheUnited Statesabandoned the protectorate overCubafrom the War againstSpain. The same year, the Marines leftHaitiand Congress passed the transition to independence of thePhilippineswhich was as effective July 4, 1946. In 1936, the right of intervention inPanamawas abolished, ending the American protectorate over that country.

Facing risk of war in Europe, Roosevelt was in an attitude that may have seemed ambiguous: he strove to maintain the officialU.S.neutrality in, while making speeches that implied that the President wanted help emerging democracies and countries attacked.

August 31, 1935, he signed the law on neutrality (Neutrality Act) of theUnited Statesat the time of the Italo-Ethiopian War: it prohibited the supply of arms to belligerents. It was applied to the war betweenItalyandEthiopia, then to the Spanish Civil War.Rooseveltdisapproved of this decision as he felt it penalized countries attacked and it limited the right of the U.S. President to assist friendly states. The Neutrality Act was renewed with more restrictions on February 29, 1936 (prohibition of loans to belligerents) and 1 May 1937 (clause Cash and Carry – “paid – prevailed” – which allowed customers to pick their own goodsUnited Statesand to pay cash). In January 1935, Roosevelt proposed that the United States participate the Permanent Court of International Justice, the Senate Democratic majority, however, refused to engage the country.

Faced with the isolationism of Congress and his own willingness to intervene that distorted American foreign policy, Roosevelt said: “TheUnited Statesis neutral, but nobody forces people to be neutral. “Indeed, thousands of American volunteers participated in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) against the Nationalists in the Abraham Lincoln Brigade, while others fought inChinain the American Volunteer Group which formed the “The Flying Tigers” Claire Chennault of the volunteers and later the Eagle Squadron in the RAF in the Battle of Britain. When the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) broke out in 1937, public opinion in favor ofChinaallowedRooseveltto help the country in several ways.

October 5,1937 inChicago,Rooseveltgave a speech in favor of the quarantine of all aggressor nations who would be treated as a threat to public health. In December 1937, at the time of theNanjingmassacre inChina, Japanese aircraft sank theU.S.gunboatPanayon the Yangtze-Kiang.Washingtonreceived an apology but the tension rose rapidly between theU.S.and the Empire of the Rising Sun. In May 1938, Congress passed appropriations for reset. U.S. President had publicly expressed his outrage at the anti-Semitic persecution inGermany(Kristallnacht, 1938). He recalled his ambassador inBerlinwithout closing the diplomatic representation. From 1938, the American public went gradually realize that war was inevitable and that theU.S.should be involved.Roosevelttherefore prepared the country to war, other than directly into the conflict. Thus, he started secretly building submarines at long range that could blockJapan’s expansionism.

When WWII broke out in September 1939, Roosevelt rejected the proposal of neutrality of the country and sought ways to help the allied countries ofEurope. He’s 11 October 1939 the Pulaski Day in support of the Poles. On November 4, 1939,Rooseveltwon the repeal of the ban on automatic weapons and ammunition. He also began a secret correspondence with Winston Churchill in in theUK.

Rooseveltturned to Harry Hopkins, who became his chief adviser in time of war. They found innovative solutions to help theUKsuch as the sending of funds by the end of 1940. Congress gradually changed his mind in favor of aid to countries attacked and so he allotted assistance in arms 50 billion dollars to various countries including the Republic of China andRussiabetween 1941 and 1945. Unlike the First World War, such aid should not be repaid after the war. All his life, one ofRoosevelt’s wishes was to see the end of European colonialism. He forged an excellent relationship with Churchill who became Prime Minister of theUnited Kingdomin May 1940.

In May 1940, Nazi Germany invadedDenmark, theNetherlands,Belgium,Luxembourg, andFrance, leaving only theUnited Kingdomfaced the danger of a German invasion. It soon came to an agreement to enlarge the envelope of aid spending to countries attacked knowing that the country might go to war againstGermanybecause of this assistance.Rooseveltbegan to power two Republican leaders Henry L. Stimson and Frank Knox as secretary of war and secretary of the Navy. The fall ofParisshocked American opinion and sentiment of isolationism fell. Everyone made an agreement to strengthen theU.S.military but some reluctance to enter the war had a sharp tongue for a while.Rooseveltasked Congress to make the first conscription of troops in peacetime the country in September 1940. It began in 1941.Rooseveltused his charisma to the public was in favor of military intervention in the country. The country was to become the arsenal of democracy. In August 1940, Roosevelt openly violated the neutrality act of agreement with the Destroyers for Bases Agreement which would give 50 boat destroyers of theUnited Statesin theUnited Kingdomin exchange for land belonging to this country in theCaribbean. This act was a precursor of massive aid that followed in March 1941 to theUnited Kingdom,ChinaandRussia.

December 29, 1940, Roosevelt spoke in a radio broadcast conversion of theU.S.economy for the war effort: the country had become the “arsenal of democracy” (The Arsenal of Democracy). On 6 January 1941, he delivered his speech on the Four Freedoms presented as fundamental in his speech on the state of theUnion: freedom of speech, religion, to live free from want and fear. The next day, the President created the Office of Production Management (Office of Production Management); other organizations were founded subsequently to coordinate policies: Office of Price Administration and Civil Supplies (Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supply), Office supply priorities and allocations (Supplies Priorities and Allocation Board) in 1941; Service of the war mobilization (Office of War Mobilization) in May 1943. Strengthened the federal government and its prerogatives which provoked reactions among Republicans, but also in the owncampRooseveltand, in August 1941, Democratic Senator Harry Truman issued a report on waste from the federal government.

The Lend-Lease program (lend-lease program in French) was to supply the Allies with war materials without direct involvement in the conflict. Lend-Lease law was signed on 11 March 1941 and authorized the President of theUnited Statesto “sell, assign, exchange, lease, or acquire by other means” any defense to any government “which the President considerd the defense vital to the defense of theUnited States.”

On July 7, 1941,Washingtonsent some 7,000 marines toIcelandto prevent a German invasion. Convoys of equipment en route toEnglandwere escorted byU.S.forces.

In August 1941, Roosevelt met British Prime Minister Winston Churchill during the Atlantic Conference, held aboard a warship off the coast ofNewfoundland. The two men signed the Atlantic Charter August 14, 1941, which took over and completed the four freedoms of speech ofRoosevelt, “began to lay the foundations of a new international policy.”

September 11, 1941, Roosevelt ordered his air force to attack the Axis ships caught inU.S.waters. Five days later, compulsory military service in time of peace was established. October 27, 1941, after the sinking of twoU.S.warships by German submarines, Roosevelt declared that theU.S.had been attacked. Unlike the First World War, theUnited Stateshad had time to prepare for conflict. It only remained to wait the spark that would trigger entry into the war: she came fromJapan, not Nazi Germany asRooseveltthought.

Attack onPearl Harbor.

On July 26, 1941 the Philippine military, still underU.S.control, were nationalized and General Douglas MacArthur was appointed head of the Pacific theater. Relations withJapanwere beginning to deteriorate.

In May 1941,Washingtongave its support toChinaby granting a lend-lease. Following the refusal ofJapanto withdraw from Indochina andChina, excludingManchukuo, theUnited States,Britainand theNetherlandsdecreed a complete embargo on oil and steel and the freezing of Japanese assets onU.S.soil.

December 7, 1941, Japanese forces bombed Pearl Harbor inHawaii, the largestU.S.naval base in thePacific Ocean. The attack caused 2,403 deaths and 1,178 injured. Many ships and warplanes were destroyed. Japanese forces also attacked that day not only Honk-Hong andMalaysia, but also Guam, Wake Island and thePhilippines. On the morning of December 8, the Japanese launched an attack against Midway also.

The Japanese made a formal declaration of war but because of various setbacks, it was shown that after the attack. December 8, 1941, President Roosevelt told the radio: “Yesterday, December 7, 1941, a date that will be remembered as a day of infamy, theUnited Stateswas deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of Empire of Japan”.

The U.S. Congress declared war onJapanalmost unanimously andRooseveltsigned the declaration on the same day. On 11 December,GermanyandItalydeclared war on theUnited States.

With the Conscription Act of 20 December 1941, mobilization expanded to all Americans between 20 and 40 years. December 22, 1941 began theArcadiaconference in which Churchill and Roosevelt decided to join forces against Nazi Germany. The United Nations Declaration of 1 January 1942 provided for the establishment of the UN. Going to War in theUnited Statesmarked a milestone in the globalization of conflict.

A highly controversial thesis asserted that Roosevelt knew about the attack onPearl Harborand let it do to provoke the indignation of the people and bringing his country into war. This theory was first advanced by officers deposed by the Commissions of Inquiry: Husband Kimmel to be the victim of a conspiracy to hide the government’s responsibility and the staff. He disseminated this idea in his memoirs published in 1955. This thesis was then taken up by opponents ofRooseveltand his foreign policy. Later, several American historians such as Charles Tansill and Charles Beard tried to prove the involvement of the president.

The facts cited in support of this theory include the alleged lack of providential three aircraft carriers in operation on the day of the attack and who were therefore not affected, the fact that many warnings were ignored and finally the local neglect. Some suspected theU.S.government had done everything to not receive the declaration of war after the Japanese bombing. Proponents of this view believe thatRooseveltpushed the Japanese to war throughout the 1930s to convince the American people in favor of neutrality.

It is difficult to imagine thatRoosevelthas left destroy as many Navy ships just to commit his country to war. Indeed, the value of tactical aircraft carrier in 1941 was unknown, although obvious, given the investments made, the Japanese and Americans were based high hopes on this new marine unit. It was still the battleship that was regarded as a main ship in navies and even Admiral Yamamoto planned the final confrontation between the two countries as a battle between ironclads. Therefore, any officer aware of the attack would have meant to protect the battleships which would then be left off by sacrificing the aircraft carrier.

Therefore, there is no evidence that Roosevelt knew about the attack onPearl Harbor, although little doubt that he has accumulated all acts contrary to neutrality during the 1930s. However, economic sanctions were aimed above all the Germans and U.S. President gave priority to the European theater as shown for example the conferenceArcadia, and the war againstJapanwas never his priority.

If Roosevelt and his entourage were aware of the risks of war caused by political support in theUK, theUSSRandChina, there is no indication that Parliament intended the attack onPearl Harbor. The disaster was caused by the careful preparation of the Japanese, by a series of local and neglect by circumstances particularly unfavorable to the Americans.

Third term (1940-1944)

Elections in 1940

The tradition of a maximum limit of two presidential terms was an unwritten rule but entrenched since George Washington declined a third term in 1796. Thus Ulysses S. Grant and Theodore Roosevelt were attacked for trying to get a third term (not consecutive) as President. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, however, cut the grass under the feet of Secretaries of State Cordell Hull and James Farley at the Democratic nomination for new elections. Roosevelt moved into a convention inChicagowhere he received a strong support for his party. Opposition to FDR was poorly organized despite the efforts of James Farley. At the meeting,Rooseveltexplained that he would stand in elections unless more was praised by delegates who were free to vote for whomever they wished. Delegates were surprised a moment but then the audience shouted “We want Roosevelt … The world wantsRoosevelt! “Delegates were inflamed and the outgoing president was nominated by 946 votes against 147. The new appointed vice-president was Henry A. Wallace, a liberal intellectual who later became Secretary of Agriculture.

The Republican candidate, Wendell Willkie, a former member of the Democratic Party who had earlier supportedRoosevelt. His campaign platform was not really different from that of his opponent. In his election campaign, Roosevelt put forward his experience in power and his intention to do everything so that theUnited Statesremained outside the war. AndRooseveltwon the presidential election of 1940 with 55% of votes and a difference of 5 million votes. He obtained a majority in 38 of the 48 states of the country at the time. A shift to the left of the country’s policy was felt in the administration following the appointment of Henry A. Wallace as vice president instead of the conservative Texan John Nance Garner, who had become an enemy ofRooseveltafter 1937.

Rooseveltin the war (1941-1945)

If in American institutions, the President was the chief,Roosevelthad a passion for business not strictly military. He delegated the task and placed his faith in his entourage, especially George Marshall and Ernest King. A single agency information was introduced in 1942 (Office of Strategic Services) which was replaced by the CIA in 1947. The president subsequently created the Office of War Information (Office of War Information) which established a propaganda war and watched the film. He authorized the FBI to use wiretaps to uncover spies. On 6 January 1942,Rooseveltannounced a “program of Victory” (Victory Program) which provided a major war effort (construction of tanks, aircraft).

Finally,Rooseveltbecame interested in the Manhattan Project to build the atomic bomb. In 1939, he was warned by a letter from Albert Einstein that Nazi Germany was working on a similar project. The decision to produce the bomb was made in secret in December 1942. In August 1943,Quebec City, an agreement was signed by the Anglo-American atomic cooperation. According to the Secretary of War Henry Stimson,Rooseveltnever hesitated on the necessity of the atomic bomb. But it was his successor Harry Truman took the initiative of the atomic bombings ofHiroshimaandNagasaki, several months afterRoosevelt’s death.

The question before the outbreak of World War II, Roosevelt had denounced the oppression and the Nuremberg Laws. Yet he also believed that he could not directly intervene in the internal affairs ofGermany. He did not lobby Congress to increase the reception of Jewish refugees. During the war, Bush had not sought to help the Jews of Europe, whereas the main objective was to be the crushing of Nazi. Despite pressure from American Jews, his wife and the American public, the president did not deviated from that direction. It was not made aware of projects bombingAuschwitzor rail lines.

Roosevelt and his allies

Roosevelt was one of the main actors in inter-allied conferences and tried to defend the interests of theUnited Stateswhile making compromises. In 1942, he gave priority to the European front while containing the Japanese advance in the Pacific. He was under pressure from Stalin demanded that opening a second front in western Europe, while Churchill was not favorable and preferred implementation of a peripheral strategy.

Roosevelt had the great merit, although the involvement of his country in this war was the result primarily of the Japanese attack, the response primarily to Europe, once the conflict was balanced on the front of Pacific naval victory of theMidway Islands.

Its evaluation at fair measure of the enormity of the danger of Hitler and the need to prevent theUSSRfrom sinking certainly justified this choice. But he had to overcome, however, to impose post-isolationist preferences of the majority of Americans for whom the main enemy wasJapan. Thus a strong entry was established into alongside the British, first to North Africa in Operation Torch, then to Europe by the successive landings inItalyand inFrance.

At the conference of Anfa (Casablanca, January 1943),Rooseveltgot to demand the unconditional surrender of the Axis powers. The Allies decided to invadeItaly. The 11-24 August 1943, Roosevelt and Churchill met inCanadato prepare for the planned invasion ofFrancein the spring of 1944. At the Tehran Conference (November 1943), several major decisions were taken: organization of a landing inNormandy, Stalin and Roosevelt rejected by the British plan of attack by theMediterraneanand the Balkans. On the political front, Stalin accepted the principle of the creation of an international organization, proposed byRoosevelt. The Big Three also heard on the principle of a dismemberment ofGermany. They did not exactly settle new frontiers ofPoland, asRooseveltdid not want to offend millions of Americans of Polish descent. Between 1 and 22 July 1944, representatives from 44 nations met in Bretton Woods and created the World Bank and IMF (International Monetary Fund). The monetary policy of the postwar period was strongly affected by this decision. At the Dumbarton Oaks Conference (August-October 1944),Rooseveltsucceeded in imposing a project he was keen: the United Nations.

It was initiated byRooseveltstood as the Yalta Conference in February 1945. The President arrived in the Crimean resort of very tired and sick. He had to make significant concessions to theUSSRbecause he needed to defeat the Japanese Moscow.Rooseveltwas so trusted Stalin. “If I give him (i.e. Stalin), he estimates, will be all I can give without demanding anything in return, noblesse oblige, he will not try to annex anything and will work to build a world of democracy and peace”.

The Allies also represented UN and fixed the veto of the Security Council, the project to whichRooseveltwas anxious. They agreed on the holding of free elections in European countries released into the war of the Soviet Union againstJapanafter the defeat ofGermany, the division ofGermanyinto occupation zones, moving fromPolandto the west.

After the Yalta Conference, Roosevelt flew toEgyptand met King Farouk and the Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie I on board the USS Quincy. February 14, he talked with King Abdulaziz, founder ofSaudi Arabia.

Roosevelt and France

Of the complex situation ofFranceduring World War II,Rooseveltwrote to Churchill that it was their “common headache.” His foreign policy was widely disputed and subject to pressure of the State Department and its diplomats Leahy and Murphy. Initially, Bush kept diplomatic contacts with the French government: he thought and prevented that the French fleet might fall to the Nazis and have information aboutFrance. He refused to recognize the authority and legitimacy of Charles De Gaulle. In early 1942, he opposed what France PARTICIPAT free to the United Nations before the elections inFrance. By 1941, however, some Americans protested against the complacency of the State Department against theVichyregime. The American press was also in favor of Free France.

But in April 1942,Laval’s return to power led to the departure of U.S. Ambassador Washington then opened a consulate inBrazzaville. But mistrust vis-à-vis De Gaulle did not dissipated: for the State Department, the character was that “apprentice dictator” andRooseveltwas convinced that the Gaullists would disclose covert operations Allied armies. Roosevelt supported successively François Darlan, then Henri Giraud, despite their retention of Vichy Regime in Africa freed (1942-1943), and he tried to block the action of the French Committee of National Liberation inAlgiers, then to placeFrancereleased in theU.S.military occupation (AMGOT).

De Gaulle was not made aware of theNormandylandings until the last minute.Rooseveltrecognized the GPRF in October 1944. OfFrancewas not invited to the Yalta Conference. Churchill insisted thatFrancewas responsible for an occupation zone of Germany. But U.S. President realized that De Gaulle was the man who would counter the communist threat inFrance. Profoundly anticolonial, he wanted the French Indochina was under the supervision of the UN, but he finally had to abandon the idea under pressure from the State Department, British and de Gaulle.

TheUnited Statesduring the economic session,Roosevelttook steps against inflation and for the war effort. From spring 1942, he accepted the Law of General Maximum to increase the income tax, freeze wages and farm prices to curb inflation. This tax policy was reinforced by the Revenue Act in October 1942. The conversion of the economy was rapid: between December 1941 and June 1944, theU.S.produced 171,257 airplanes and warships 1200, which led to the growth of military-industrial complex. However, consumer products and food were inadequate, that the situation was not as difficult as inEurope. A mixed economy, combining capitalism and state intervention was implemented to meet the necessities of war. Socially, campaigns experienced a rural exodus and agricultural overproduction. African Americans migrated South to urban centers and industrial Northeast. In the working world, the period was agitated by numerous strikes because of the wage freeze and increased working hours. Unemployment dropped because of the mobilization and the employment rate of women progressed.

Discrimination against African Americans persisted until the army, despite the 8802 executive order that prohibited them in the factories of national defense. After the attack onPearl Harbor, the anti-Japanese sentiment gained momentum. In this context, 110,000 Japanese and Japanese American citizens were collected and monitored in internment camps (War Relocation Centers). January 14, 1942,Rooseveltsigned a decree of the pointing of Americans of Italian, German and Japanese suspected of collusion with the Axis. Presidential Decree 9066 of 19 February 1942 was enacted byRooseveltand concerned Western countries were concentrated Japanese populations, in camps monitored.

November 7, 1943, Franklin Roosevelt came to the Presidency with the support of almost all of his party. Again he was opposed to a Republican candidate, Thomas Dewey, whose program was not in total contradiction with the policy ofRoosevelt. The latter, despite his age and fatigue, led campaign asking Americans not to change drivers in midstream.Rooseveltwas reelected for a fourth term with a narrow majority of 53% (25,602,505 votes), but over 80% of the electoral college vote (432 seats).

Roosevelt’s death

During his speech before Congress on March 1, 1945,Rooseveltappeared gaunt and aged, he went to Warm Springs on March 30 to rest before the UN conference. April 12, 1945, he collapsed complaining of a terrible headache when Elizabeth Shoumatoff was busy painting his portrait. He died at 3:35 p.m. at age 63 from a brain haemorrhage.

Lucy Mercer Rutherfurd, the former mistress of the president, was present along withRooseveltand left quickly to avoid scandal. Eleanor Roosevelt took the first plane to go to Warm Springs. The body of the president was transported by train to the capital, thousands of people, particularly African Americans, gathered along the tracks to pay their respects. The coffin was in the White House and in the family home inHyde Park. The son of Franklin Roosevelt being mobilized, they could not attend the funeral except Elliott. The President was buried in Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site April 15, 1945.

Roosevelt’s death aroused great excitement in the country and abroad. His health had been hidden by his entourage and by doctors from the White House.Rooseveltwas president for over 12 years, longevity unequaled by any American president. In theUSSR, the Soviet flag was edged with black and dignitaries attended the ceremony at the embassy. Stalin believed that theU.S.president was poisoned. The Italian Prime Minister decreed three days of mourning. InGermany, the new Goebbels made merry, and we do not know the reaction of Hitler.

According to the U.S. Constitution, the Vice President Harry Truman became the 33rd President of theUnited Stateswhen he was kept out of political decisions and that he had not traveled toYalta. Truman dedicated the ceremony on May 8,1945 inmemory ofRoosevelt.


The main features of the character ofRooseveltappear at the time of his first presidential campaign: his optimism, particularly given the seriousness of his condition since he had the will to rely; also its requirement vis- towards itself as its employees. His optimism was fed also because of his faith was a deeply religious. One of his favorite movies was Gabriel over the White House by GregoryLa Cava(1933) he was projecting at the White House. Distractions aside, he appreciated the little theater and collected stamps.

Rooseveltwas someone intuitive, friendly and even charming, always smiling and disarms critics by knowing humor.Rooseveltwas a gifted communicator and even capable of eloquence, less and meeting in small committees where the undoubted success of his talks “fireside” (fireside chat) in which he addressed simply and directly to the Americans. In 1939,Rooseveltbecame the first president to appear on television. He also used the radio a lot. With his warm voice and melodic, he knew how to address the public and journalists.

He really cared for the poorest Americans and was sensitive to injustice and oppression in all its forms. In this respect, he benefited from the popularity of his wife. ButRooseveltcould also be a hesitant policy, a manipulator tactician, capable of not bothering feelings to achieve its goals, often secret, and attached to his selfish independence. His Secretary of the Interior, Harold Ickes once told him: “You are a wonderful person, but you are a man with whom it is difficult to work. You never talk frankly with the same people who are devoted to you and you know that loyalty. ”

Franklin Roosevelt had the concern of public opinion: he was interested also in surveys of theGallup. Became president of theUnited States, his decisions were motivated by a pragmatic concern and scrupulous respect for democracy, reason for his distrust of de Gaulle.

Legacy and tributes

According to a ranking compiled by historians for the magazine The Atlantic Monthly, is the third most influential American in history, behind Washington and Lincoln. However,Rooseveltis considered the greatest American president of the twentieth century. He modernized American institutions: he vote the twentieth amendment in 1933 which put forward the inauguration of President-elect in early March to 21 January. He strengthened the executive branch by customizing and in doing so enter the era of techno-structure: the number of staff increased dramatically. Roosevelt’s legacy has been considerable on American political life: he spent the end of isolationism, the liberties and the superpower status of theUnited States. ButRooseveltwas also hotly contested by both the Republicans and the American New Left who believed that the New Deal had not gone far enough.Rooseveltremained a model in the second half of the twentieth century. Eleanor Roosevelt continued to exert its influence in American politics and world affairs: she participated in the San Francisco Conference and ardently defended civil rights. Many members of theRooseveltadministration pursued a political career from Truman, Kennedy and Johnson.

Truman tried to walk in the footsteps of his predecessor by launching the Fair Deal. But it was Johnson who was the greatest American presidents Roosevelt and he liked to compare his New Deal social policy.

The Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site is closed and houses the presidential library. The residence of Warm Springs (Little White House) is a museum run by the state ofGeorgia. The holiday villa Campobello Island is administered byCanadaand theUnited States(RooseveltCampobelloInternationalPark). It is accessible byFranklinDelanoRooseveltBridge.

The Roosevelt Memorial inWashingtonDC, right next to the Jefferson Memorial. Plans were drawn up by architect Lawrence Halprin. The bronze sculptures are the highlights of the presidency, along with several excerpts fromRoosevelt’s speech.

Many schools are named after the president and one aircraft carrier. The reservoir behind the Grand Coulee Dam inWashingtonstate is called Lake Franklin D. Roosevelt, who presided over the completion of the work. InParis, his name was given to a roundabout Avenue des Champs-Elysées, and consecutively to the subway station that serves it (Franklin D. Roosevelt). TheTempleof the Grand Lodge of France bears his name, which recalls that the American president was a Freemason.

The school Joli-Coeur de Reims inFrance, instead of signing of the German surrender, was renamed theFranklin-RooseveltHigh School(Reims) in his honor.

Rooseveltis one of the most presidents represented in the works of American fiction. The writer John Dos Passos writes him in fact as a manipulative in his novel The Grand Design (1966). In The Man in theHighCastle(1962), Philip K. Dick imagines that Roosevelt died in the attack inMiamiin 1933, an event that is the point of divergence of its alternate history.

The portrait of Franklin Roosevelt appears on the 10 cent coin.Monacohas issued several stamps honor the second half of the 1940s. One of them representsRooseveltto his collection of postage stamps. However, this stamp has an error: the hand holding the tweezers was designed with six fingers.Rooseveltis one of the leaders of American civilization in the game Civilization IV, with George Washington.

President Roosevelt’s team studied a number of assumptions to quickly boost theU.S.economy. The most bizarre advocated by economist R. Peleklajmie aimed to revive the book industry and printing by incorporating a new letter in the alphabet (1936). R. Peleklajmie was based on the work of Keynes, who advocated the use of leverage in consumption to increase the country’s economic activity. This solution was immediately rejected by theU.S.president, despite a demonstration of over 5 hours of R. Peleklajmie.

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