The, also briefly called, was a criminal authorities and the political police apparatus in the time of National Socialism (1933-1945). It was created in 1933 to reshaping the political police forces of the Weimar Republic. In 1939, the was incorporated into the Reich Security Main Office (Amt IV). As an instrument of the Nazi state, they had far-reaching powers of power in fighting political opponents. In the Nuremberg trials, it was declared a criminal organization.
Founded in 1933 and first annual to 1936
While on 30 January 1933,became the Reich President Paul von Hindenburg appointed chancellor, was also appointed Hermann Goering Reich Commissioner for the Prussian Ministry of the Interior. This particular turn on the same day the head of the political police force of the Prussian Ministry of the Interior (3 Sections of II), , was appointed Head of the IA, the political police Prussia’s, whose main task is to monitor and fight against political opponents. On 3 March 1933 raised a Prussian ministerial decree on the previously applicable limitations competence of the police. This represents a first step to the dismissal of the Gestapo from binding to the law was implemented. On 11 April Goering was also Prime Minister of Prussia. Its adoption of 26 April 1933 the Prussian secret police was carved out of the police force and formed the Secret State Police (Gestapo), which was the Prussian Minister of the Interior , under the direct and had the status of a national police force. Diels said about the term Gestapo / Gestapo it an independent invention of the imperial post was that shortened the long name of the service without authorization and used the barrel stamped it had. With the second Gestapo law of 30 November 1933, the Gestapo was a completely independent branch of internal administration, which was directly responsible to the Prime Minister (Goring). By order of 9 March 1934 Göring transferred the supreme direction of the state police by the Office of the Prussian Minister of the Interior at the Office of the Prussian Prime Minister, before the first effective May 1934 also Prussian Interior Minister was.
In the early years of Nazi rule, the power struggle for the leadership of the political police had not yet ruled in the kingdom. From 1933 to 1936 there were rivalries concerning the restructuring and management of the police units, especially between Hermann Goering,and the Reich Interior Minister . Himmler, starting fromBavaria, until April 1934, and according to the powers of the political police in the non-Prussian states (except for the small Schaumburg-Lippe, which followed afterPrussia) united to his person.
On 1 April 1934, Diels dismissed as Prussian Gestapo chief and 20 April 1934,, Chief and Deputy Chief of the Prussian Gestapo, but in fact he had been in command. The direct management was handed over to , previously head of the Bavarian political police and there Himmler assumed. Now the Gestapo became a nationwide organization for spying on the big population and elimination of opponents of the regime, which was closely linked to the SS. Organizationally and technically she was right here strongly influenced by Heydrich deputy . Goering was still trying to get the Gestapo inPrussiato regain control, but on 20 November 1934 he was obliged to Himmler transferred to the business of the entire Prussian Secret State Police under the sole responsibility of him. Goering focused on the expansion of the Air Force.
Development since 1936
On 17 June 1936,
So that the different police organizations such as municipal, rural and municipal police were no longer was centralized under the supervision of the Ministry of Interior of the country, but the police. Officially, he was subordinate to Interior Minister , in fact, he was now the second most powerful man in the state administration and the police structured around basic. On 20 August 1943, he also became Minister of the Interior. Himmler had the “Order Police” and the “security police” divided separately. He has now been placed under the Gestapo also nominally. In particular, the State Police (political police) in the non-Prussian states were at this time clearly assigned to the Gestapo, although the , such as inHamburg, still took influence on the work of the State Police. The Gestapo was merged with the Criminal Investigation Department in the Office Security Police (Sipo), whose management took over again . Directly responsible for fighting the enemies of the regime, the Gestapo was a II (political police), held their line . In addition, the Gestapo was now an instrument of repression, to fight against the political opponents of . Jews, homosexuals, the so-called “anti-social” and “work-shy” and the underground active Jehovah’s Witnesses came into her sight.
Merger to RSHA 1939
1939 the next change: Gestapo and criminal police were merged as part of the security police with the Security Service (SD) to the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA). Now renamed as the Gestapo Department IV of the RSHA with the label “enemy control” and stood by the Departments of “opponents research”, “German sphere of life” and a former foreign service who were all came from the SD. This position in the structure of the Nazi state, the Gestapo kept until 1945. The Gestapo had thus become until its dissolution after the end of, part of a conglomerate of power, in which the distinction between the real and the police department to SS, so a political organization associated with organizational units was nearly impossible.
Parallel to changes in assumption conditions also changed the internal structure of the Gestapo: After establishing it was divided into ten departments, one of which for Generalia and one was in charge of protective custody matters. The remaining eight departments had to supervise the task of ever a political movement. On this principle of organization was also found by the Gestapo after Himmler and Heydrich had been assumed, and now consists of three main departments (administration, Political Police, Defence Police) was. When they merged in 1936 with the police for security police, it created an Office of Administration and Personnel, which regulated the concerns of both police facilities. The merger of the state police with the SD to the RSHA changed nothing in this division, so that the Gestapo was formed the organization chart for a department in the RSHA. During the, the specialized units focused on the persecution of opponents each group, supplemented by country units that were responsible for the occupied territories. The Defence Police was eventually renamed the Office of Border Police and supervised the customs and immigration affairs.
With various organizational changes and the increasing range of tasks associated with this, the Gestapo, the headcount to grow. Was the Secret Police Office in 1933 with less than 50 employees a staff organization for coordination of measures taken during the period of consolidation of the regime of repression against political opponents, the Gestapo in 1935 offered a different picture. With approximately 4,200 employees were the State Police and the control centers in 1935 expanded its range-monitoring and tracking apparatus. For 1937, a total strength of 7,000 employees is likely. For 1941 14.835 Gestapo members were listed on the payroll, of which, however, employed around 4,000 outside the Empire. With the outbreak of, the Gestapo expanded its persecution of not only spatially, but also fought against new enemy groups, which were at the end of the Third Reich is not less than 31,000 men employed.
Concurrent with the establishment of the Gestapo in Berlinwere in cities (usually the seat of a regional council, a district leadership or an upper Bureau) established State Police, the similarities with their inner structure to the Gestapo and were directly under this. After 1937/38 some of the central State Police were erected provide crowd control, which in turn were under other Stapo offices, remote offices, branch and border police stations. In total there were 63 Stapo offices, were set by which the most important benchmark. The respective locations were under the Berlin Gestapo, after 1936, the Regional Inspector of the Security Police and SD, and after the war began and the newly founded RSHA. After 1939, other agencies and centers have been set up in the occupied territories inEurope, which were subject to the respective commander of the Security Police and SD.
The (Old) Empire State Police control centers existed in Berlin, Breslau, Brno, Frankfurt / Main, Gdansk, Dortmund, Dresden, Dusseldorf, Hamburg, Hanover, Karlsruhe, Katowice, Königsberg, Magdeburg, Munich, Münster / Westphalia, Nürnberg-Fürth , Poznan, Prague, Liberec (South), Stettin, Stuttgart and Vienna (from 1938).
Subordinate to them were more offices with relevant external and extension: Aachen (belonged to the control center area Dusseldorf), Braunschweig, Bremen, Bromberg, Chemnitz, Darmstadt, Dessau (until 1941 independent state police station in Dessau, then the branch office of the State Police office Magdeburg), Eisenstadt (1938, control center area Vienna), Frankfurt / Oder, Graz (since 1938, control room area Vienna), Halle / Saale, Innsbruck (from 1938, control room area Vienna), Carlsbad, Kassel, Kiel (control center area of Hamburg), Klagenfurt (from 1938, control room area Vienna), Koblenz (control center area Dusseldorf), Cologne (control center area Dusseldorf), Leipzig, Linz / Donau (from 1938, control room area Vienna), Lodz (Lodz / Warthegau) from (from 1939), Opole, Potsdam (control center area of Berlin), Regensburg, Saarbrücken, Salzburg ( 1938, Vienna area control center), Schwerin, Tilsit, Opava, Weimar and Zichenau-Schroetter castle. To October 1943 were also Stapo offices in Hohensalza Graudenz, Koszalin,Trier, Pila,Wilhelmshaven.
The spatial-regional distribution could be very different and depended on the security police aspects: the State Police office Dusseldorf were subordinate in 1939, for example, the State Police offices in Cologne, Koblenz and Aachen, she uncovered so that the whole Prussian Rhine province from (Breakdown by Province) and the state police control centers Munster and Dortmund were in charge of the administrative regions of Münster and Arnsberg (breakdown by administrative districts), and the State Police office Wilhelmshaven was responsible for Ostfriesland and the Secret Police Office Karlsruhe was responsible for the entire region Baden (breakdown by demographic aspects of a region).
State police practice and groups of enemies
In the early years built the Gestapo on intensive internal political reporting. The various State Police, the Nazi authorities provided detailed information on the agreement that the regime learned from the population. These activities ceased in 1936 and a year later transferred to the SD, since the Gestapo reports n, who found a fragile loyalty of the population, have been accused of making a defeatism feed. The basis for this was the functional separation decree of 1 July 1937, in which Heydrich regulated the different roles of SD and the Gestapo: The Gestapo was exclusively for the observation and control of Marxism, treason and exile – and the tangible political resistance – responsible. In numerous other areas, both shared the secret observation that has been evaluated by the SD but only in terms of the mood of the population. Information, which he won over political opponents, he handed over to the Gestapo further ushered in the persecution.
Because their sole purpose in 1936 was to address the political and ideological opponents of the regime and. They had a wide range of instruments that started with relatively harmless fines and bans pub and into the serial executions of political opponents of the Nazi regime during the last years of the war experienced an extreme exaggeration. All these measures had in common that they were arranged without verification of judicial or other administrative authorities and executed. Only when the Gestapo held it useful, for example, in the pursuit of prominent opponents of the regime, they handed over the cases to which, of course, since 1933, also thoroughly Nazified, Justice.
The most important instrument of the Gestapo was to fight political opponents of, the so-called protective custody. This was before 1933, only the short-term detention of persons. By decree after the , but time limitations were lifted as judicial review. By decree of the Minister of Interior of 25 January 1938 could only order the Secret State Police Office inBerlinprotective custody. This was carried out in principle to concentration camps n; often took the opportunity to kill his political opponents. This gave the Gestapo an instrument in the hand to correct unwelcome judicial judgments: Did the parties is serving a sentence imposed by the courts, they were taken on the basis of the same allegations after their release into protective custody and sent to concentration camps.
The fight against political opponents was a focus of the work of the Gestapo. In the early years infiltrated the Gestapo conspiratorial groups that had evolved from the banned political parties. While members of these organizations have been moved by threats and material benefits to cooperation, these undercover agents made sure that an organized resistance was crushed before the war began. To combat political opponents groups in the later years, special commissions were used, for example, after the assassination of Heydrich or the assassination of 20 July 1944 on. Information were forced into brutal torture and used in subsequent processes. The uncovering of the Red Orchestra wanted to use the Gestapo to the Soviet war opponents in collaboration with the Armed Forces to fool with radio play s. The Gestapo also fought critical expressions of opinion on the regime, which had been declared illegal by the law of malice, for which she used denunciation.
Parallel to the fight against political opponents, which should serve to stabilize the regime, were the ideological goals of the NS input into the work of the Gestapo, so that even ideological opponents such as homosexuals or “work-shy” targeted by the secret police came.
The measures against homosexuals continued to rise in the course of the Third Reich massively. Left the Gestapo in the early years of the regime still on raids in the scene and passed most of the cases to the courts, so she sat in later years on denunciation and continued detention by a reckless in concentration camps. Cynically them the choice between castration and further detention was left. So-called anti-socials were harassed in the early years with protective custody, later bundled the Gestapo these prosecutions. 1940 so-called labor camps (AEL) were established, in which people could be admitted for “failure to perform its obligation to work.” After a circular of the, 15 December 1942 were also in the larger farms in the vicinity was not a work camp, training camps established under the leadership of the state police control rooms, where the prisoners were guarded by members of Security.
During the war, the Gestapo expanded its persecution to new groups of enemies. The countless POWs n and forced laborers had to be monitored, which tied about half of the staff. The focus of attention focus was dawdling, sabotage in the factories and work stoppages, and unauthorized use of German, for example, transactions on the black market, or sexual intercourse. In the second half of the war, the resistance to forced laborers organized conspiratorial either at the premises or, in the case of runaway slave labor, in the form of small groups, who were hiding in the big cities. The Gestapo seized then to increasingly brutal methods, especially inEastern Europeand Soviet forced laborers were executed numerous and without trial. And in the occupied countries was the Gestapo worked and fought the local resistance movements. The brutal treatment of whole sections of the population should see a direct sequel inGermany, after thefrom more and more countries had to withdraw. During the last months of the war, the Gestapo exekutierte many places indiscriminately their prisoners before the places were occupied by .
In addition, the Gestapo took over during thecrucial functions in connection with the persecution, deportation and murder of the European Jews. Like other police formations Gestapo men were reassigned to the behind the front led by summary executions. But the more important role in the murder of European Jewry played the Gestapo in the newly conquered territories, but inBerlin, the political center of the Third Reich. The infamous Jewish Affairs under was a Gestapo office were (IV B 4) in the RSHA, coordinates from where the anti-Jewish measures. The deportation of Jews fromGermanywas under the auspices of the Gestapo carried out as a division of labor and bureaucratic process in which the secret police worked closely with the railroad and the local police departments served. Their conclusion that military precision destruction took place in the factory operation, to plan and implement the Gestapo was involved as relevant. But previous discrimination measures such as the introduction to Jewish houses were planned and implemented by the Gestapo of the Gestapo leaders.
Gestapo and the Nazi movement
The ruling elite of the secret police recruited from a predominantly middle-class background. These were to young career academics which had doctorates almost all lawyers and to a considerable extent. With few exceptions, all Heads of State Police, had a high school diploma. At this high level of education often some distance came to specific items of National Socialism, or to its character as a mass movement and party. As a generation of “new realism” that had won their political socialization in the unstable 20s, its members were career-directed, often ethnically based, elitist and anti-Republican. They questioned the effectiveness and efficiency of government administrative action and a leader principle tatorientiertes a containment of fundamental rights and the rule of law.
This mentality is reflected in the membership of Gestapo members of political organizations. A significant portion, about two-thirds, was engaged in a Nazi organization. In the center sat down early with a strong link to the SS State: 49.9% of the members were members of the SS, the SD 31.1% and thus the most elite organizations within the Nazi movement. Memberships just this justified a special relationship of trust, for these Gestapo members were Himmler not only as an employer but also in his capacity as Reich Leader SS. Contrast between the regional offices did differ significantly, for example, included many members of the Gestapo in the Westphalian offshoots of SA. The close links between government actually Gestapo and SD as a secret of the Nazi movement was also reflected in a lively exchange of personnel between the two organizations.
Rapid expansion of Gestapo personnel, personnel selection and penetration of the Nazi movement, influenced each other: In the early years was mainly recruited from the police force, and it was pushed to the membership in a Nazi organization. In later years this relationship was reversed. The technical skill level could no longer be kept and trained in crash courses SS men went into the service, so that in fact the SS membership as an important criterion of selection was.
Gestapo and German society
However, assessing the historical research, the Gestapo achieved their significant growth in personnel, despite no longer. Still like in the 50s and 60s as an all-powerful organization that virtually the whole of German society under surveillance coverage This “Gestapo-myth” created by Heydrich and other employees kept the public in order to exaggerate the effect of proceedings. He did not fit the reality. Instead came the best observierten city, Berlin, about 4,000 residents to a Gestapo officer in the Prussian province was forced to deal a secret service employee to the anti-regime efforts of 25,000 inhabitants.
The Gestapo could therefore not only rely on their own operations, as their staff was not enough, but was dependent on the population of legwork. This was achieved through the recruitment of undercover agents, during thebut reinforced by denunciation s coming from the center of the population.
Undercover agents were recruited mainly by the Gestapo in the resistant compared to the Nazi groups such as the Social Democratic or Communist dominated labor or the Catholic milieu. During the war, the Gestapo undercover agents also recruited from among the laborers in order to control this group better. The main motives of the undercover agents to participate are threats of protective custody, to name a material advantage and ideological conviction. Accordingly different are designed cooperation between undercover agents and Gestapo: delaying information to the Gestapo in order to protect the members of their own group, stood next to the active participation in the persecution.
As another source also opened up the Gestapo informers, so information came from the population to crime. These related mostly actions and statements that have been criminalized by the regime, for example, were accused of political evaluations carried on and formed the basis for an investigation, protective custody procedures and processes. Here the informer s rarely turned directly to the Gestapo, but the ads were often passed by the police or by the party. Especially the Nazi organizations used their assigned transmitted information also at their own discretion and only then gave these further to the Gestapo. Although no figures for the entire Reich there so many local studies show the overwhelming importance of the denunciations of the practice of the Gestapo. Some historians pointed to this to the thesis that German society during the Third Reich a “self-monitoring company” is because the majority of people have shared the aims of Hitler.
The Gestapo succeeded so apparently, make a considerable part of the population to the regime in service, then denunciations proven to be problematic in practice. Similar to the recruitment of undercover agents may be expected from a significant range of s informer, accused and alleged motives for denunciations. From the large number of individual cases, the historical research of course, a frequently recurring pattern developed: denunciations went out to a considerable extent by authoritarian shörigen, little net worth, income and poor educational social circles and directed more than average against higher social strata of society. The Gestapo realized this instrumentalization of denunciation to act out social conflict, without wanting to meet this difficulty, the State Police practice.
Subsequent history of the Gestapo
The Gestapo had been declared in the Nurembergtrials to a criminal organization. High officials had to answer in the follow-up processes or were convicted in other European countries for their actions. The behavior of the middle and lower ranks has been legally evaluated by the tribunal process, which in many cases was further employment in the public service impossible. For most of the former Gestapo members the end ofmeant a sharp cut so even when they went into hiding or fledGermany.
Not infrequently, had former Gestapo members in the early postwar years contest with dequalifizierten activities livelihood. 1951 granted amnesty to the U.S. High Commissioner John Jay McCloy many of them, the same year inserted in Article 131 of the Basic Law facilitated the re-employment of officials charged. In consequence of these decisions in the 50s many former Gestapo staff moved back into the police and judicial bodies of theFederalRepublic. So it can be called a slow and quiet integration of the employees of the organization of the Third Reich in the society of postwar Germany, as these since 1945 neither political speech nor by grief, that is a reflection of their own role in the Nazi state, stood out.
Also on the Second Worldand was also the term “Gestapo” for similar institutions in other countries used. Today is the security office of the French Foreign Legion (Légion étrangère) by many (former) Foreign Legion with Gestapo or Deuxième Bureau (Eng.: II) refers. One of the main traditions of the Gestapo in outsourced Hauptstaatsarchiv Dusseldorf, where the activities of these secret police in theRhineland are documented.
Architectural remains of the Topography of Terror
Buildings on the Prinz-Albrecht-terrain were partially destroyed in the war, or demolished after the war. In the 1970s, used among other things, construction waste company and a license-free driving Autodrome for the free surface.
In the early 1980s, several initiatives became closely to build on the site of a memorial. Consequently, created in 1987, the Topography of Terror museum project. It is on the site of the former Prinz-Albrecht-Strasse 8, today Niederkirchnerstraße 8 sought in the city’s Kreuzberg district, the headquarters of the Gestapo in a former art school to document the terror apparatus of the Nazis. In the immediate vicinity of the Prinz Albrecht Palais was at Wilhelmstrasse 102, which since 1934 has been the headquarters of the Security Service (SD) of the SS in 1939 and also of the Reich Main Security Office’s (RSHA). The former Hotel Prinz Albrecht, Prinz-Albrecht-Strasse 9, was in 1934 the seat of the “Reich Leadership SS”. This group of buildings is understood today as “Prinz-Albrecht-Terrain” together. The documentation center in the Niederkirchnerstraße 8 is one of the National Museums inBerlin.
Remains of the prison house in the basement of the Gestapo have been preserved and are now a listed building. The items are part of the Topography of Terror publicly. Were in the prison cells from 1933 to 1945 about 15 000 political prisoners detained and interrogated. The prison was notorious for torture and for many prisoners transit station to the concentration camps.
With Himmler’s decree of 18 March 1938, the Vienna State Police office and State Police inLinz,Salzburg,Klagenfurt,Innsbruck, Eisenstadt was built. After the division of the Austrian provinces in the e Reichsgau Stapo Office Eisenstadt betweenViennaandGrazwas divided. In Wiener Neustadt, St. Znojmo Pölten andViennaoffices of Stapo Office were created. The Gestapo office inViennacould give other instructions Stapo offices and request reports. Each Stapo Office also directly subordinate to the Secret State Police Office (Gestapo), later the Reich Security Main Office. Even the respective Higherwere able to give instructions Stapo offices. Stapo offices which in turn could be the authorities of county and order police operate. Between 1940 and 1944 the Stapo offices fromBerlinwere steered directly, without turning on the Gestapo office inVienna.
State Police headquarters in Vienna
TheViennahe Gestapo headquarters in the former Hotel Metropol on Morzinplatz was with about 900 employees, the largest Gestapo office in the German Reich. Every day here up to 500 people were summoned for questioning or received after the arrest. Karl Ebner, the deputy head of the Vienna Gestapo headquarters, called the euphemistic “Office hours”. Overall, at least 50,000 people are likely to be caught in the mills of Vienna Gestapo. Approximately 12,000 people are included in this recognition service lichen index of the Vienna Gestapo, photos were taken and on “Photographierscheinen” was the “criminal class” lists.
The citizens were arrested by the Gestapo through a back door in the Salztorgasse directly procured in the basement, which served as a prison and torture chamber. By physical and psychological violence were here – often with fatal consequences – extorted confessions and denunciations s. Even the first great wave of arrests in March and April 1938, which was primarily known anti-Nazis and Jews goal was coordinated by the Gestapo at the Metropol Hotel, as well as the following stransporte deportation to concentration camps. The control center was inViennathe Nazis as “successful Gestapo headquarters of the Reich”.
Was head of the Gestapo in Viennafrom March to December 1938, the Bavarian and later superintendent SSCommander and Major General of Police , in the WeimarRepublicwas with the police in Munich. SS-Standartenführer Rudolf Mildner was his successor. Huber is one of the major Nazi criminals in Austria. He was rated after the war in the FederalRepublicas a “small-loaded” with 500 Deutschmark fine and one year in prison parole in freedom. He enjoyed the protection of the American authorities because he arranged with them in time. SS-Obersturmbannführer (1943) Karl Ebner, the deputy head of the Gestapo headquarters in Vienna, which had started as a member of the Cartell Association in the First Republic and the corporate state in the police his career, followed as head of the Jewish Department (II B 4 , later IV B 4) in Vienna in particular Communist resistance fighters and Jews recklessly. Ebner was established in 1948 by the People’s Court sentenced to 20 years in prison and pardoned by President Theodor Körner already 1953rd.
On 12 March 1945 the building burned out after bomb hits and was later demolished. 1968 at the site of the former Gestapo headquarters of Figl-farm was built. On its front is a relief to commemorate the victims of the Gestapo, to the rear is a memorial room (entrance Salztorgasse 6). At the same address led Simon Wiesenthal – who also lived here – his documentation center. Was across the front of the former headquarters of the Gestapo headquarters today is a memorial.
The so-called monument to the victims of the Nazi regime (also: Memorial to the Victims of ) on Morzinplatz in 1985 built on the initiative of the Association of Concentration Camp Association from the City ofVienna. Part of today’s monument is a memorial stone with an inscription, which was unveiled there in 1951 as part of a demonstration of the concentration camp association. The inscription dates from the then President of the Association of Concentration Camp, William Steiner, and is as follows:
“Here stood the house of the Gestapo. It was hell for the confessors ofAustria. It was for many of them the atrium of death. It fell into ruins as the millennial kingdom.Austriais resurrected with him and our dead. The immortal sacrifice.”
The city of Vienna took to the concentration camp association founded and built without official permission memorial stone in their care and in the following years here were many, some of them international rally held. The redesign of the monument in 1985 by the sculptor and stonemason Leopold Cruel and was executed by the Municipal stonemason workshop, the technical director was cruel. He supplemented the existing block of stone with simple, rough-hewn stone blocks and an intervening bronze figure. The upper square, covering the niche with the figure, Cruel sided with the inscription:
On either side of the inscription in the square two of the former Nazi forced markings were added, the red triangle on the left of the political prisoners and the right of the yellow Star of David.
When Stein chose Cruel granite from the quarry at Mauthausen, the reference was found for him from the fact that the Gestapo arrested and interrogated at the State Police office at Morzinplatz Nazi persecution mostly to Mauthausen were, where they had at the local quarry make hard labor . Leopold Cruel created numerous monuments and memorials, he designed the monument on the Morzinplatz one of his major works. The unveiling of the monument took place on 1 November 1985 by Mayor Helmut Zilk and Rosa Jochmann.
The symbolism, designed by Cruel monument – a ball forming a fist, forward-border man who rises between the stone blocks – is of the Austrian journalist Peter Diem described as “a symbol of overcoming the darkest years in the history of our Republic”.
The Gestapo used the ranks of the state police.
Note: Ranks of the intermediate service are in normal type, ranks the higher service in bold and Ranks of higher services in italics.
The setting in the upper CID service followed an entrance exam as a detective superintendent candidates. After about a year of candidates, it was seconded to a nine-month course at the training school of the Security Police (Sipo) in Berlin-Charlottenburg. After passing the examination for promotion to detective immediate assistance detective was mandatory. The assignment of a post (and thus transported to the detective on trial) followed usually within a few days. After about six months of probation was the transport of the extraordinary detective.