Summary:was a famous German aircraft with multiple usages. can be used as civilian aircraft, military transport and even bombers. During , the German several large-scale airborne operations employed Ju 52 airdrop troops, such as fighting in the Low Countries in 1940, and the subsequent battle of Crete. In those battles, the German achieved success using airborne troops quickly defeated the opponent. The aircraft were manufactured in a large number, totaling of nearly 5,000. Ju 52 was used by many countries use, such as Italy, Brazil, France etc. A few Junkers 52 are even still in use now.
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The Junkers Ju 52 (nicknamed Tante Ju). Aircraft is a type of Junkers aircraft factory AG, Dessau Now known as the Ju 52 aircraft is the three-engined Junkers Ju 52/3m version from 1932, which emerged out of the single-engine model Ju 52/1m.
With the Junkers Ju 52, it was originally to develop a single-engine cargo airplane which in large areas with poor infrastructure freight volumes if possible carry equipped with a diesel engine should. Great emphasis was placed on a low maintenance. The development of the Ju 52 could be influenced so as part of the Defense Ministry (RWM) that military matters were taken into account in the design of the same. Already in the planning, a three-engined version was designed as a transport aircraft, but the original should not be built. Only under the direction of Deutsche Lufthansa, particularly by director, in 1931 the decision was made to include this three-engined airliner in the construction program with. The design of the Ju 52 represented a real innovation in aerospace war because the military version of this aircraft could not be created without modification. The basic design consisted of a static highly stressable structure, a split chassis, which allowed a continuous space for hanging bombs, a special division of the cargo space and a hatch on top of the fuselage, which enabled the subsequent installation of a MG-state. This interpretation was paid in 1933, as Junkers was commissioned over 450 Behelfsbomber in the three-engine design in theRhinelandprogram. The development costs of the single engine version were 1.3 million RM. It is likely that at least part of this sum have flowed as payment for the influence exerted by the RWM at Junkers.
Equipped with the patented ierten Junkers double wings, it should offer the possibility of 15 passengers (plus two emergency exits in case of need to) and also to Behelfsflugplätzen short runway transport. Now it is known as the Ju 52 aircraft is the three-engined Junkers Ju 52/3m version that emerged from the single-engine model Ju 52/1m. Its first flight was a three-engined machine, the Junkers Ju 52 made on 7 March 1932. Curiously, the first two ever built Ju 52/3m (- actually a converted JU 52 ce – serial numbers 4008 and 4009) were inBolivia and not as is generally assumed often called into service inGermany. The three-engined version of the Ju 52 coined the civil aviation as a few more aircraft and is one of the most famous historic aircraft from German production ever.
Characteristic design features of this machine are the corrugated metal planking (as with many Junkers aircraft) and three engines. The Ju 52 was used by the Germanduring as a transport plane and was particularly convincing because of their low landing speed. Overall, approximately 4,800 of these aircraft have been produced, of which about 1,900. Before the outbreak of
Use the Junkers Ju 52/3m
Shortly after the first flight it took over the “German Luft Hansa AG” in May 1932, the first Junkers Ju 52/3m.
In July of this machine began inZurich in an international airliner meeting, where they competed against rivals such as the Dornier Do K and Fokker F.XII.
On the way home to Berlinon 29 July 1932, the D-2201 rammed after a stopover at the Oberwiesenfeld near Munichin about 300 meters from a training aircraft type Udet U 12 Flamingo. The school located in the climb plane collided with the left landing gear, the left engine of the Ju 52 was almost torn off, the wing was damaged and the fuselage had large holes. The student pilot was killed.
Polte captain and mechanic Hänsgen identified the cause of the explosion damage at first did not for them, but, the aircraft and the passengers – among them the director of Lufthansa – safe emergency landing on a cornfield.
With this evidence of the solid construction, the won international acclaim, commercial success was assured.
Safety and comfort
The machine was popular with passengers because they offered great comfort and was distinguished by the safe and punctual operation. Even the toughest routes across the Alps or theAndeswere the Ju 52/3mmastered safely and reliably. Since the machine did not have a pressurized cabin, but quite altitudes of more than 3000 meters were flown, there was oxygen mask n the passengers. Also the cabin was equipped with a heater. For the information of passengers it contributed an onboard information system with altimeter and thermometer designed flight cards.
Competition from the Douglas DC-3
Than other European airline en began to use theand DC-3, which had only two engines and a much larger passenger capacity more economically and with its modern design with retractable landing Glattblechbeplankung and the flight performance of the Ju 52/3msignificantly exceeded , Lufthansa had to look for a successor. The resulting four-engined Condor from 1937, the Ju 52/3mnot replace it.
Lines in Europe
Many European airlines which used a Ju 52.
The airline Det Norske Luftfartselskap first borrowed a Ju 52/3mand bought it later by Lufthansa. It was equipped as a floatplane and served from 1 June 1936, the coastline betweenOsloandBergeninNorway. After the, a total of six aircraft were in service, which was used until 1956. 1946 lost the LN-LAB went toOsloafter a crash.
After receiving the first aircraft in 1932 will soon appear the extraordinary reliability of this type. Lufthansa therefore chose the Junkers Ju 52/3mtheir standard type of aircraft and has already ordered in the fourth quarter of 1932, the first eleven aircraft. 1938 about 75% of all air traffic in the Ju 52/3mwere executed. With Berlin-Tempelhof as a center throughoutEuropewas served. Also the major route fromBerlintoRomecould be flown with the Ju 52/3mreliably over theAlps. In 1934, together with the German-Russian air traffic AG lineMoscow- openedBarcelona, which was expanded two years later to the distance fromBerlintoMadrid. Also in 1934 the section Seville Las Palmas was opened as part of the mail route fromGermanytoAmerica. At the beginning of the war was the DLH a large part of the fleet to the Air Force, but was already late September 1939 the air traffic again. On 29 January 1940 the air freight route was Uetersen -Copenhagenopens. The routes were flown primarily in the Balkans toItalyand on toScandinavia, as long as it would allow the events of the war. The fleet was chartered Ju 52/3mthe DNL (the Air Force), the Ala Italiana complements theIberiaand the Aero O / Y after 1942/43 during theof Stalingrad all own Ju 52 (except one with floats) to the Air Force to supply the had to be made. The last flight of the Ju 52 took place in May 1945.
For 21 of the above-mentioned damages passengers were killed. Eleven of the accidents occurred before and ten during the war, of which less than seven in 1944. 1945, two additional accidents were recorded resulting in death. Overall, the Air Force reported 51 casualties at chartered by DLH aircraft that are included in the above number of total losses.
The Ala Littoria continued from 1935 to 1943, a total of eight Ju 52/3m. They were purchased for the difficult Alpine Milan-Munich, as the Ju 52 which was in contrast to the Italian aircraft with appropriate deicing. The first three planes delivered in 1935 were equipped with the commonly used BMW-132-A engines, but were subsequently converted to the Italian Piaggio XR engine with 700 hp. After two losses (March 30, 1938 I-Rela personnel without damage, December 4, 1939 I-BAUS with seven injured and four dead) Ala ordered three aircraft that were delivered the 1940th. These aircraft were fitted with the 750 horsepower 126-RC.34 engines from Alfa Romeo and were called “lu”. In September 1943, it seized the DLH, the four surviving Ju 52/3m the Ala Littoria and chartered it to the end of the war for their own air travel.
When Iberia it was a subsidiary of DLH, which was at the beginning of the Spanish Civil, was revived. From July 1937 the operation of the national traffic DLH Spain. For this they used their own aircraft were chartered toIberia. Seven aircraft were on 1 July 1939 sold toIberia. 1941/42 provided the DLH six Ju 52/3m, including four brand new, which served as a stake inIberia. Three aircraft DLH chartered in 1942 for their own air traffic. The works number 7053 EC-ABD was there on the 5th September 1944 destroyed by a bomb attack. In the summer of 1964 was in the military section of the airport Palma de Mallorca a Junkers Ju52 in action.
In contrast to the Imperial Airways was the British Airways (BA) allowed abroad to procure aircraft. Night for their post routes that BA bought two used 1937 Ju 52 of the Swedish AB Aerotransport (ABA). JFM 1938 delivered a new machine G-AFAP. These were to the freighter version of the Ju 52/3m. The aircraft was on 9 during the German occupation ofNorwayin the Oslo Airport Fornebu April 1940 seized. The two remaining aircraft acquired in 1941 for use in Sabena, theBelgian Congo.
From 1946 to 1948, the British European Airways (BEA), a total of ten aircraft from the spoils of war began mainly as a freighter. In one of the aircraft it was the former D-APZX DLH.
The Greek airline (HEES, Ελληνική Εταιρία Εναέριων Συγκοινωνιών) had a fleet of various types Junkers. Since the opening of the Athens-Heraklion on 19 March 1939 were used exclusively on this three Junkers Ju 52/3m. This Between Juni and August 1938 procured by DLH for HEES. With the occupation ofGreecein May 1941 the three aircraft were seized by the Air Force.
JFM delivered in March 1941, three in May 1941 (AISI 7180). A Ju 52/3mto the Soviet Union A further six aircraft orders were not delivered after the attack on theSoviet Union. The planes were in theUSSRprovided a test bed for motors and are not meant for passenger traffic. A portion of the aircraft was not delivered by the RLM also used as a test vehicle (type No. 7205 for Jumo211 L, AISI 7230, 7255 and 7280 provided for Jumo 223). During WorldII, theUSSRcaptured a greater number of Ju-52 and put these machines into the 1950s, particularly in Siberia and theMiddle East. For the Ju-52 compared to the Li-2 (licensed by the DC-3) required shorter runways were met by the local infrastructure development. Only the lack of spare parts led in the 1950s to phase out the type.
The operational flying community with DLH ÖLAG ordered 52/3mseven Ju. The OE-LAL went through a break on 16 Lost in March 1936, the rest of the DLH took over in the integration of ÖLAG 31 December 1938. Even the Austrian Army had three Ju 52/3m(two bombers and a bar machine).
Sabena acquired before the war, a total of eight Ju 52/3mge. Two aircraft were lost due to accidents (OO AUA March 14, 1939, OO-AUB November 16, 1937). The rest were sent after the war began, according to theBelgian Congo, where he was during the war of the air traffic resumed. From 1941 by the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) aircraft and crews were chartered. 1941 bought Sabena two Ju 52/3mof British Airways. In order to keep the traffic can upright, some planes were used for spare parts. The last two Ju 52/3mbeen removed from the register in 1946.
Lines in South America
Especially inSouth America, the rugged machines was proven exceptionally well. Who ruled from the Lufthansa Aviation sat mostly the Ju is a 52/3m.
Lufthansa to operate on the road inPeruthrough a subsidiary, the “German Lufthansa SucursalPeru”. A total of four Ju 52 were employed, most of whom OB HHB 26th June 1938 crash. Two aircraft were on 31 March confiscated in 1941 by the Peruvian government and the DLH Peru revoked license.
After the Lufthansa had rejected the single-engine Ju 52/1m, Lloyd Aereo Boliviano, ordered the fall of1931 intwo copies on the condition that they were equipped with a place with three engines (Pratt & Whitney “Hornet”). This can work as a trigger for the development of the Ju Ju 52/1m52/3m. The two aircraft on order (the serial numbers 4008 and 4009) were originally planned with a motor and could not be converted during its construction on three engines. Both machines were in the war between Bolivia and Paraguay (1932-1935) used as a transporter – curiously before Lufthansa or Air Force presented the Ju 52/3min service. Five aircraft were procured. The sixth machine (AISI 6993) was in 1941 due to the state of war no longer be delivered toBolivia.
The Brazilian airline Syndicato Condor Ltda., Which was a subsidiary of Lufthansa, flew at 15 airfields and 24 Seeflughäfen (float planes). Your entire network reached an area of 15,000 kilometers. The Condor constituted the most important company of DLH in South America Accordingly were from October 1933 until the end of1945 atotal of 16 Ju 52/3mused. Three aircraft were lost due to crashes, two were transferred to the SEDTA, sold the remaining eleven machines 1945/Anfang end of 1946, the Argentine Air Force.
The VARIG continued the Ju 52/3mplant number 4058 PP-VAL (ex SAA ZS-AFA) is a state ofRio Grandedo Sul. Apart from their main route Sao Paulo-Rio de Janeiro operated the VASP three other targets deep inside the country. The first machines bought it about a year after its founding the 1935th Five aircraft were used.
With the home airport in Buenos Aires Aeroposta Argentina flew in the sparsely populated areas down to Tierra del Fuego. The DLH 1937 three aircraft procured for Aeroposta. Some machines were used for the transportation to the oil fields of Comodoro Rivadavia
With only two machines CX-ABA (AISI 5877) and CX-ABB (AISI 5886) was of the CAUSA since1938 ashuttle service betweenMontevideoandBuenos Airesoperated. It is a high density seating was used, so that up to 28 passengers took place. The CX-ABB was on 24 December 1940 lost by fall.
From 1956 to 1963, the Ju 52/3mg2e flew with the serial number 5489 cargo and passengers betweenQuitoand the Upper Amazon, presumably Puerto Francisco de Orellana. Until 1969, she was still rotting atMariscalSucreInternationalAirportinQuitoand is now back in with the tail D-AQUI in German Lufthansa Berlin-Stiftung use.
After the SEDTA had already had good experience with the type of Junkers W34, was purchased in 1938 for the route fromQuitotoGuayaquiltwo Ju 52/3mby DLH. It is the SAC-HC (works number 5053) and HC-SAB (AISI 5915), on the 10th already December 1938 was lost due to crash. Furthermore, two of the Ju 52 Syndicato Condor were chartered, bought another. On 4 September 1941, the Ecuadorian government seized the two remaining Ju 52/3mand revoked the SEDTA because of its links with DLH the concession.
Since the founding of the German-Colombian society SCADTA in 1919 she sat mostly a Junkers machines. The first two F-13 aircrafts Ju for SCADTA (Sociedad Colombo-Alemana de Transporte Aereo) acquired at a price of 12,000 gold dollars, reached Colombiaby boat late July 1920.
Subsequently in 1932, three Ju 52/3m were used, some with floats and flows from operating from. The border war between Colombia and Peru (1932-1934) was the first recorded military use of Ju-52 machines, some flown by German pilots SCADTA instead.
One of them is still as FAC625 in Museo Aeroespacial Colombiano (MAECO) of the Colombian Air Force in the military part of the airport Catam Bogotá. The machine is no longer airworthy externally restored in 2008 and can be viewed there by visiting application. She was the first president of the State machine.
Lines in Africa
Founded in 1934 at the South African Airways had the Junkers company a majority stake. Because there were the German Reich chronic shortage of foreign currency, Junkers participated in the Company by introducing material. The SAA therefore took effect from 1 November 1934 its first four Ju 52/3m. They took over the major route fromCape TowntoJohannesburg. 1937/38 afurther eleven Ju 52/3mwere procured, as the SAA at the time was planning a huge expansion of the network. At the same time the old ZS-AFA was sold to Varig, the former AFC ZS and ZS-AFD at the DLH, they immediately used for transport ofIberia. In 1940, the remaining ten Ju 52 were accepted by the SAAF and as a transporter or – used as Behelfsbomber against– inNorth Africa.
Lines in Asia
The subsidiary of the DLH sat (33% stake), a total of ten from 1935 Ju 52/3m. The last one was scrapped in 1945 when the successor company CATCO.Eurasiawas the most affected by the fighting in the Sino-Japanese war and five aircraft lost by Japanese bombs. The last aircraft delivered Eu XXV on 26 October 1940 shot down by Japanese fighter planes, the crew was injured. Three aircraft were lost from 1937 to 1939 due to falls. Despite these adverse conditions, theEurasiahold the traffic up to 1943. The route of this variable was adjusted to the conditions. Abroad,HanoiandHong Kongwere served, to connect with the lines of the Far East Air France and Imperial Airways. It succeeded, for political reasons, however, never to make a direct connection between Europe andChinaon theSoviet Union.
1933 Junkers received as part of Rhineland-program an order over 450 Behelfsbomber in the three-engined version. Testing the three-engine version as Behelfsbomber probably began in the second half of 1933 with two aircraft (serial numbers 4032 and 4034). This testing was under enormous time pressure, because the Großserienbau under the camouflage ABC program should begin in May / June 1934. To cope with the enormous production figures (the scheduling1a already saw 707 aircraft in front of JFM), the production of large components of ATG Leipzig and WFG awarded and performed the final assembly at Junkers. Until the end of 1934 was 192 Behelfsbomber be shipped after 1933 only 17 Ju 52/3m were built. Already in 1935, took on the ATG scale production until 1937 and delivered 154 aircraft. From 1934 to 1937 1027 Behelfsbomber were delivered, only to be switched over to the transporter Ju 52/3mg4e. After the war began, ATG was again involved in the production of the Ju 52. Furthermore, in August 1941 contracts to Amiot / SECM were placed inFrance, from June 1942 delivered the first aircraft. 1944 PIRT received an order inHungary, of which only four aircraft were delivered to the Air Force.
WFG 1937 received an order to convert 404 Behelfsbomber the Transporter. More planes were used as C-reactive or flight training aircraft.
During the war, the Ju 52/3mwas used in minesweeping squadrons of the Air Force. The company MNH (Maschinenfabrik Niedersachsen Hannover) built by October1944 atotal of 151 aircraft in order accordingly. The machines were called Ju 52/3mMS and were equipped with an installed under the fuselage coil with diameter of15 m. By the magnetic field magnetic ground mines were detonated when flying in about 30 meters at120 km/ h can be brought over the sea to the explosion. The power of the35 cmwide and10 cmhigh with 44 coil windings of aluminum wire through which a current of 300 amperes was flowed through a hull built in 12-cylinder car engine from Mercedes with 150 kW of power. The flying height is controlled by a grinding on the water surface and a corresponding electrical signal cable. On 15 September 1940 saw the first introduction of the crew. The first mission took place from the airfield Gilze Rijen at the mouth of the Westerschelde inVlissingen.
In July 1936, first 20 machines were sent to thein the . From the total of 48 Ju 52 (Spanish nickname “Pablo”) threw the German legionaries from November 1936 to January 1937 blast, fragmentation and incendiary bombs on Madrid, translated with a 250-kilogram bomb the Republican “Jaime I” knocked out Spanish and destroyed including the Basque city of Durango (Bizkaia) and Guernica ( Guernica). These military successes led to say: “Franco was the Ju 52 to build a memorial.” Soon after, it was found that the machines were suitable as a bomber only conditionally, in particular their low speed made them vulnerable. Starting in May 1937, they were no longer used as a bomber, but again used as a (military) transport aircraft.
World War II
The Ju 52/3mremained throughout the, the standard transport aircraft of the . In comparison with the Douglas Dakota, the military version of the DC-3, had the Ju. 52/3mhave a lower capacity and payload, the other in military operations were the short take-off and landing capabilities (STOL) Ju 52 beneficial
Planned successor to the Ju 52/3mwere the Ju 252 and Ju 352 and the Arado Ar 232, but these were only produced in relatively small quantities.
French Air Force
Even with the French Armée de l’air was the Ju 52. Mostly as Amiot AAC.1 Toucan after the war until the end of the 1960s in use Some Toucan In 1960, after a massive earthquake relief supplies to Agadir in Morocco.
Briefly a Ju 52 of the French Air Force in the Berlin was involved.
Italian Air Force
Fascist Italy during thesome equipped with Piaggio engines Ju 52/3mflew in the . These machines had been taken over in 1940 by the national airline Ala Littoria as “militarized passenger aircraft” and served in theMediterraneanas a transport plane. They were all lost in operations until 1943.
Portuguese Air Force
The Portuguese Air Force procured in1937 atotal of ten fighters that were used up until the 1960s. InPortugal, some served by CASA inSeville(Spain) in license-built CASA 352 as transport aircraft until the mid-1960s.
Swiss Air Force
In 1939, the Swiss Air Force purchased three Ju 52/3m. The type presented in the following 40 years, is the largest aircraft in the inventory of the Air Force and was used for different tasks. During her long period of service to the machinery acquired the affectionate nickname “Auntie Ju”. Only in 1981, the machines were taken out and taken over by the JU-AIR.
Spanish Air Force
In 1939, after the victory of the Nationalists under General, most machines of the were handed over by the German Reich the new Spanish Air Force Ejercito del Aire. Parallel to this was still in the final stages of the on the licensed production of the Ju 52 as CASA 352 L, with a total of 170 aircraft were built. Various machines, including both original Ju 52 as built under license CASA352L were still up in the year 1974 when the Spanish Air Force as a transport aircraft in use. Many specimens were preserved after the phasing in museums or sold abroad.
Of the Junkers Ju 52/3malmost bewildering number of variants was built. In particular, the engine has been performed frequently by the customer.
- Ju 52/3mce equipped with three Pratt & Whitney Hornet with 404 kW (550 hp)
- Ju 52/3mba equipped with a mid-engine Hispano-Suiza 12Mb with 551 kW (750 hp) and two wing engines Hispano-Suiza 12Nb each with 423 kW (575 hp). This machine with the serial number 4016 was in March 1932 made especially for the President of the FAI, the Romanian Prince Bibesco, and sold. The interiors have been designed accordingly luxurious.
- Ju 52/3mfe, improved version with panel of the chassis and NACA hood n the wing engines and three BMW Hornet engines.
- Ju 52/3mflexible, special variant as a trainer
- Ju 52/3ml, three Pratt & Whitney Hornet SE1Geach with 489 kW (665 hp)
- Ju 52/3mg, either three Pratt & Whitney R-1340 (S3H1-G), each with 404 kW for (550 hp) ( For example,Great BritainandArgentina), three Piaggio PXR (forItaly) with 515 kW (700 hp) and three 533 kW (725 hp) Bristol Pegasus VI (for For example,Poland)
- Ju 52/3mho equipped with three Jumo 205 diesel engines with 404 kW (550 hp) (delivery to Lufthansa), serial number 4045 and 4055
- Ju 52/3mreo, three 588-647 kW (800-880 hp) Da / Dc
- Ju 52/3mte, three BMW132 G/ L, fastest civilian variant
Even the military operation has produced a large number of variants:
- Ju 52/3mG3E, equipped with three Behelfs bombers. The guy did not prove itself, and was from the year 1938 again used briefly as a transport aircraft in the Air Force.
- Ju 52/3mg4e, 3 BMW132A. In this type of cargo space floor was reinforced installed a large side loading hatch and a large hatch in the roof of the cabin. Production took place inDessauand at ATG inLeipzig.
- Ju 52/3mG5E, armed transport variant with BMW 132T. In part with equipment for towing gliders equipped. 1941 was introduced.
- Ju 52/3mG6E, like Ju 52/3mg5e, slight changes to the chassis.
- Ju 52/3mG7e, armed transport variant with BMW 132T. Number of side windows reduces enlarged hatch, autopilot from Siemens
- Ju 52/3mG8E, G6E like, but with autopilot from Siemens
- Ju 52/3mG9E how G6E but BMW engine as 132Z. Changed equipment.
- Ju 52/3mG10E, three engines BMW 132T. Even as seaplane with floats.
- Ju 52/3mg12e as G10E, but BMW132Las motorization
- Ju 52/3mg14e, G8E similar, but better armor
- Ju 52/3mMS (solenoid), these machines are the minesweeping group Mausi were provided with an electric coil, the mines should bring Magneto to explode.
Other manufacturers abroad
In other countries was during the Second World War and then the Ju 52/3mbuilt under license:
Of SECM-Amiot inColombes(France) were 516 units during the Second World War and still made 415 after the end of the fighting, which then in the French Air Force and the Air France under the name Toucan AAC.1 to about the end-1960 were flown years.
At CASA inSpainduring the last phase of the civil war and after the end of 170 aircraft were produced. These were known as CASA 352nd Since theengine was discontinued, changed by the use of the motor produced in Spain Elizalde Beta the engine cover of the center engine. These machines (whether original or built under license) were flown by the Spanish Air Force Ejercito del Aire until 1974. Some flew inPortugal. Many copies of the CASA 352 were retained after the phasing in the Air Force in museums or were sold abroad, where they are sometimes still used for classic car tours. Some CASA 352 replaced due to lack of airworthy original Ju 52 just this for some airline guest who purchased a Ju 52 for classic car tours.
“Auntie Ju” today
Some of the Ju 52/3mhave been preserved and are still used to some extent for historic flights. Other machines are in museums around the world or to be issued in public places.
- Musée Royal de Armée,Brussels,Belgium
- GermanMuseum of Technology,Germany
- Technology “Hugo Junkers”Dessau,Germany
- Flugausstellung Leo Junior,Hermeskeil,Germany
- Visitors park atMunich’s Franz Josef Strauss,Munich,Germany
- Auto & TechnikMuseumSinsheim,Sinsheim,Germany
- Ju-52-museum Traditionsgem.Air transport Wunstorf (formerly IG Ju52 eV),Wunstorf,Germany
- Musée de Air et de Espace, Paris /Le Bourget,France
- Museum of the Hellenic Air Force,Athens,Greece
- Forsvarsmuseets Armed Forces Aircraft Collection,Bodø,Norway
- Forsvarsmuseets Armed Forces Aircraft Collection,Oslo,Norway
- Svedino’s Automobile andAviationMuseum,Falkenberg,Sweden
- Muzej Jugoslovenskog Vazduhoplovsta,Belgrade,Serbia
- Museo del Aire,Madrid,Spain
- NationalMuseumof theUnited StatesAir Force,Dayton,USA
- National Air and Space Museum,WashingtonDC,USA
- Museo Nacional de Aeronautica,Buenos Aires,Argentina
- Museo Aeroespacial Colombiano-MAECO,Bogotá,Colombia
The author also recommends:
- Distress scale of the Armed Forces