Zaka al-Molk (1877 in Tehran, † November 26, 1942 ibid) was a scientist, politician and Prime Minister of Iran.
Mohammad Ali was born in 1877 in Tehran. His father Mirza Muhammad Husayn Foroughi was among the educated elites of the country. He worked in the Translation Bureau (Dar al-Tarjomeh) of Naser al-Din Shah and later became head of the translation agencies. Naser al-Din Shah was also awarded him the title of Zaka al Molk (intelligence of the kingdom). After his father’s death the title passed to Mohammad-Ali.
Mohammad Ali’s father took personal training to his son. The voice talent seemed to lie in the family, at any rate learned Mohammad-Ali in his youth not only his native language Persian but also Arabic, French and English. At 17, Muhammad Ali began as his father before his translation work in the office.
1899began teaching at the newly established Tehran College of Political Sciences (Madreseh olum-e-e siyasi), whose line had been transferred to his father. Since there were no textbooks for history and political science in Persian, Foroughi wrote several textbooks, such as “The History of the Peoples of Asia”, “The history of Iran” and “The History of Rome”. In addition to his historical rates Foroughi also gave courses in economics and law. In preparation for his course in economics he translated Adam Smith’s “Wealth of Nations”. After the death of his father Foroughi took over the management of the University in 1907.
Foroughis political career began in 1909 with his election to the newly established parliament. 1911 Foroughi Finance and later Minister of Justice. After the end of WorldForoughi was a member of the Iranian delegation, which had been sent by Ahmad Shah Qajar for the 1919 Paris Peace Conference at Versailles. The intervention of the British government, the delegation was, however, not admitted to the conference and had to return empty-handed drive home.
Foroughi often lamented the apathy of his countrymen:
1923, Foroughi again ministerial positions in the cabinets, on the coup of Seyyed Zia al Din Tabatabai and Reza Khan, later, was followed. When Reza Khan became Prime Minister, Foroughi took over the post of Foreign Minister. Foroughi supported the efforts of Reza Khan in Iran to abolish the monarchy and replace it in favor of a republic. After the clergy had decided spoken out against a republic, fearing excessive secularization of society and the erosion of their power, Reza Khan developed with the support of the plan Foroughi, depose Ahmad Shah Qajar and Reza Khan to crown the new Shah. Foroughi worked as chairman of a parliamentary constitutional commission of the Constitution of 1906 additional items which the dynasty was established Pahlavies. On 12 December 1925 was determined by decision of the Parliament to the Shah of Iran. At the coronation ceremony in April 1926 Foroughi held the eulogy.
Foroughi one years held the post of Prime Minister, but then resigned in June, 1926. The urgently needed political reforms were taken from Abdolhossein Teymourtash and Ali Akbar Davar under the new Prime Minister Hassan Mostofi addressed. Foroughi was sent as ambassador to Turkey. Back in Iran, he took over in 1930 for a short time the newly created post of Minister of Economy, but was urgently needed as Foreign Minister and traveled in this capacity to thein Geneva, in order to represent the interests of Iran.
In August 1933, Foroughi was once more prime minister, and remained there until 3 Dezember, 1935. Reza Shah had demanded his resignation after Foroughi had used for his son Vali Mohammad Asadi, the treasurer of the mosque in Mashad. Asadi was one of the main persons responsible for the violent demonstrations from July 1935 to Reza Shah’s decree, with the wearing of the chador was banned, arrested. Asadi was sentenced to death by a military court, and on 21 Executed in December 1935.
Foroughi took his scientific career again and published a three-volume “History of European philosophy,” he translated works of Descartes and Socrates into Persian and Persian, he worked on a dictionary of philosophical terms. As prime minister Foroughi was founded in 1935, the Academy of Persian Language and Literature (Farhangestan). Now, after he had retired from politics, Foroughi elaborated on comments and extended editions of the works of Ferdowsi, Saadi, Hafez and Rumi.
The scientific work Foroughis was abruptly ended by thein 1941. Reza Shah called him and asked him if he would assume the office of the Prime Minister once again. Despite his ailing health Foroughi agreed. 21 days after his appointment as Prime Minister was forced to resign Reza Shah to British pressure for the benefit of his son, . Foroughi designed the resignation, then the Reza Shah on 18 September 1941 was signed. Remained under Mohammad Reza Foroughi as Prime Minister in office and negotiated with the British and the Soviet Ambassador on 29 January 1942 by the Iranian parliament confirmed in the Tripartite Agreement, which affirmed the territorial integrity of Iran and providing for the withdrawal of Soviet and British troops six months after the end of the war. The agreement should acquire a decisive importance in the United States were made with the help of the back pressure of the Soviet troops from northern Iran and the resolution supported by the Soviets Azerbaijan People’s Government after the war ended in 1946.
8 January 1942 it was in Tehran to assassinate Prime Minister Foroughi. The bomber Mohammad Ali Roshan were several shots at Foroughi. In March 1942 Foroughis resigned as Prime Minister and was Minister of the Court. Mohammad Reza Shah offered him the post of Iran’s ambassador to the United States. But before Foroughi could assume his new office, he died on 26 November 1942.
Foroughi has published numerous books, including
“The history of Iran””The history of the peoples of Asia,””The Roman History””Constitutional etiquette””Introduction to Physics””Width thoughts””Socratic thinking””History of European philosophy,””Message to the West,””The Nature of Music””The Art Vorlesungenzu hold”, anda book Shahnameh.
Prime Minister (Iran)
Minister of Justice
Member of Parliament (Iran)
High School Teacher (Tehran)
Iranian Ambassador to Turkey
Born in 1877
Died in 1942