Moscow Declaration

The Moscow Declaration (also Moscow Declaration) was the result of the Conference of Allied foreign ministers during the Second World War in 1943. The statement was made ​​on 30 October 1943 in Moscow and decided on 1 November published.

Content of the declaration

It was to clarify the terms on which the alliance of U.S., Britain and the Soviet Union could be maintained in the final stages of the war and the immediate postwar period, despite the existing political differences.

Germany

All three powers agreed to demand the unconditional surrender of Germany to negotiate a truce with the minor axis allies such as Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria only together and inform each other about wanting peace, the war opponents. The United States and Britain renewed their commitment to the Soviet Union to open a second front in Western Europe. On 16 November 1943 joined the French Committee of National Liberation in this declaration.

A key issue was the question of what shape should adopt the German Empire after the war. Therefore, the question of the treatment of the Nazi criminals was the beginning of the Moscow Declaration. It was agreed to request the full disarmament of Germany to make the tips of the Nazi state before an international military tribunal, and bringing war criminals to justice in the countries in which they were accused of committing their acts. Each ceasefire agreement should include the condition of surrendering Nazi criminals to the scene of their crimes. The murder of Jews, stateless persons and civilians en who had been committed not only in the occupied countries, but also in Germany, Austria and Hungary itself was not mentioned in the statement. The question of how the Nazis could be made for crimes against the civilian population in the Axis countries the process was not subject to the Moscow Conference.

Austria

In the Moscow Declaration, the foreign ministers of the Allied States United Kingdom, United States and Soviet Union declared the “Anschluss” of Austria to the German Reich in March 1938 invalidated and declared that they would make the sovereign state of Austria after the Second World War.

The held in the declaration wording was: The governments of the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States of America are agreed opinion that Austria, the first free country that should the Hitlerite aggression fall victim to be liberated from German domination to.

Austrian politicians of the postwar period and some decades later, this was taken as evidence for the “victim myth” so-called, after Austria was the first victim of the Nazi German Reich and therefore not responsible for his actions. In contrast, one could read explicitly in the Moscow Declaration: “Austria is also reminded that it has a responsibility to participate in the war on Hitler’s Germany side who can not escape it, and that at the final settlement consideration of the fact how much it will have contributed to its own liberation, will be inevitable. ”

It was stressed on the one hand that the State itself has become Austria was the first victim, the Austrians politically and militarily involved in the crimes of the Nazi regime, but could not escape responsibility for war crimes. The contemporary function declaration, therefore, an expression of will of the Allies also propagandistic nature. Through the Declaration of the Allies demanded an Austrian resistance activities, although provided by the regaining of sovereignty in view, the future treatment of Austria but was explicitly linked to the works of the Austrian Resistance.

Different views existed among the Allied n so far as the Western powers – especially the British – said that after the war, the Austrians should be made ​​collectively responsible, while the Soviet Union wanted to make the state responsible Austria. The Soviet side prevailed in the text. The reason was anticipated repair s that could be made ​​by the state, but not by citizens though.

With the promised restoration of the Austrian sovereignty of Austria should be freed – in contrast to Germany, which was to be defeated as the main enemy. After the end of the war the country was restored in the borders before the connection to the German Reich. Austria as well as Germany was divided into four occupation zone n. The Moscow Declaration was one of the bases in the negotiations on the withdrawal of the occupation troops on 15 April 1955 led to the Moscow Memorandum, on the turn of the Austrian State Treaty of 15 May 1955 based, placing the country after the years of the Nazi regime (1938-1945) and the period of occupation (1945-1955) was returned to its full sovereignty and independence.

Atrocities

In (English) Statement on Atrocities the basis for the war crimes trial e was laid for what the German perpetrators should be extradited to the countries where the crime had taken place. For the trials against the German criminals whose actions took place geographically superior to an agreement on a common punishment by the three allies should be taken (London Agreement 1945).

Austria in the time of National Socialism

Italian history (20th century)

Policy (World War II)

1943

Politics (Second Republic of Austria)

International Law Treaty

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