Mosin–Nagant

Russian Imperial infantry of World War I armed with Mosin–Nagant rifles

Russian Imperial infantry of World War I armed with Mosin–Nagant rifles

The Mosin-Nagant (in French spelling Mossine-Nagant) is a military rifle manual repeating five cartridges that was used by the armed forces of the Russian Empire and later the Soviet Union and countries of the Eastern bloc.
Also known as the gun three lines, he was the first to use the cartridge 7.62 x 54 mm R.
It has been in use in various forms from 1891 to 1960, when it was finally replaced by the SVD Dragounov.

History

During the Russo-Turkish War, Russian troops were armed mostly Berdan rifles a shot while the Turks were armed with Winchester repeating rifles. The Ministry of the Russian arms then decided to design a magazine fed weapon several cartridges in 1882. After the failure of the attempt to change the Berdan, a “special committee for experimentation guns charger” was created to test several designs (like the Mauser, Lee-Metford and Lebel).
A young captain named Sergei Mossine submitted its draft rifle 3 lines (an old Russian measure, 3 Linii equivalent to 0.3 inch or 7.62 mm) in 1889 to compete with the rifle to 3.5 lines Léon Nagant ( originally from Belgium).
When the tests were completed in 1891, all the testers who tried rifles preferred than Nagant, and the Commission voted 14 votes to 10 against approving it.
However, the most influential officers pushed manufacturers to a compromise: Mosin would be used with the system supply Nagant. Thus the gun 3 lines, model 1891 (its official designation at the time) was created.

Production began in 1892 in the factories of Tula arsenals of Sestroretsk and Izhevsk.
Due to the limited capacity of these plants of these weapons were produced at the Manufacture Nationale Armes de Chatellerault in France.
During the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, approximately rifles were delivered to the army.
Between the adoption in 1891 and 1910, several variants and modifications to the existing rifles were made, including changing the sights, the implementation of a strengthened cylinder head (due to the adoption of a warhead of 147 grains ), the removal of steel fingers behind the trigger guard, a barrel and new installation of a roller mounting. A handle has also been added.

With the outbreak of war in Russia in 1914, production was restricted to the M1891 M1891 cavalry and infantry for the sake of simplicity. Due to the lack of weapons and privations of an industry still in development, the Russian government ordered rifles Remington Arms and New England Westinghouse in the United States.
Many Mosin Nagant was captured by German forces and Austro-Hungarian and were seen service in the rear of the front lines and in the German Navy. Many of these were sold to Finland in the 1920s.

During the Russian Civil War, cavalry and infantry versions were in production albeit extremely small number.
After the victory of the Red Army, a department was created in 1924 to modernize the rifle, which was then used additional thirty years.
This has led the development of the model from 1891 to 1830 based on the design of the original model cavalry.
The changes include: the reintroduction of the sights rear flat rescheduling increase in meters instead of the ancient archine arms of the Czar and the shortening of 5 mm cannon.
In addition, a new spring bayonet was designed for this new model. This rifle was designed to shoot with the bayonet extended, which increases the precision due to harmonic vibrations created when a bullet is fired. Around 1945, M1891/30 were manufactured.

The Mosin Nagant knew precision version in 1932 and was used by Soviet snipers during World War II.
He has served in the Battle of Stalingrad, which made ​​sniper Vassili Zaitsev as heroes or Roza Chanina. These rifles were renowned for their strength, reliability, accuracy and ease of maintenance. The precision models are highly prized by collectors, especially in the West.
In the years after the war, the Soviet Union ceased production of all Mosin Nagant and was gradually replaced by the series of SKS and AK.
Despite this, the Mosin-Nagant is still used in the Eastern bloc and the rest of the world for decades during the Cold War, Vietnam, Korea, Afghanistan and along the Iron Curtain .
It was not only used as a weapon reserves, but also in combat.

Recently, a large quantity of Mosin-Nagant was found on the U.S. markets and antique collectors, because it is a reliable weapon, accurate and cheap enough for hunting. You can now find the standard models at prices around 80 dollars thanks to the huge surplus created by the Soviet industries during World War II. There are many models of snipers, but they are much more expensive, as long as we manage to find one.
Imitation sniper rifles are also in circulation, or simply replicas that can be found on sale for real, caution is required to avoid scams and confusion.

Variants produced by Russia and the Soviet Union

Major users Imperial Russia and the Communist USSR produced many variations copied or adapted abroad.

The imperial period (1893-1917)

  • Infantry rifle model 1891 (Russian name: 1891-пeхoтнaя винтовка образца гo года). The main weapon of Russian and Red Army from 1891 to 1930.
  • Cavalry rifle (Russian name: драгунскaя). Designed to equip the cavalry. 64 mm shorter and 0.4 kg lighter than the M1891.
  • Cossack Rifle (Russian name: казaчья). Designed to fit the Cossacks, it is almost the same as the cavalry model, but it is designed to be used without bayonet.
  • Model 1907 rifle. Shorter and lighter (0.95 kg) than the M1891, this model was excellent for cavalry, and artillery fire. He could not receive bayonet. It was produced until at least 1917 in small numbers.

The communist period (1917-1950 approximately)

  • Model 1891-1830 (Russian name: винтовка образца 1891/30-гo года, винтовка Мосина). The most current version of the Mosin Nagant. It was produced and distributed to the entire Soviet army from 1930 to 1945. His plans were established from the model of cavalry.
  • Rifle model 1938. A rifle based on the M1891/30 plans. It was in service from 1938 to 1945, although the units produced in 1945 are quite rare. This is basically a M1891/30 with a shortened barrel, this rifle does not accept bayonet.
  • Rifle model 1944. This rifle was commissioned in late 1943 and remained in production until 1948. Its characteristics are very similar to M1938 except the bayonet fixed permanently on the model 44, the latter is quadrangular blade. These rifles were not only used by the USSR but also its various satellite countries.
  • 1891/59x rifle model. Of existing M1891/30 were shortened to the length of a rifle. We do not know much about them. Collectors generally suspicious of this appellation think this model has been produced commercially by arms importers in Canada.

The Mosin-Nagant foreign

Austro-Hungary

The Austro-Hungarian Empire captured a large quantity of Mosin Nagant during the First World War.
These rifles were distributed to the troops on the battlefield. Some have been modified to fire the cartridge Austrian service, 8x50R mm. The Austrians have also produced various ersatz bayonets for Mosin.

Eastern Europe

With the strong influence of Russia on the Eastern Europe, it is not surprising that many Mosin-Nagant are in the hands of soldiers during the Balkan war or hot war.
The military of Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Serbia have all used the Mosin-Nagant at one time or another. The Mosin in these countries often underwent changes, and were often used in the years 2000-2006 as training rifles. Many of these rifles were produced locally even during the years of hot war. Hungary has produced for commercial copies of high quality rifles M44, 91-30 and 91-30 models with glasses PU. Czechoslovakia made ​​the VZ54 sniper rifle, based on the 91-30 but with the appearance of a modern sporting weapon.

People’s Republic of China

During the 1920s and 1930s, the communist forces of China received Mosin Nagant USSR to counter nationalist forces during the Chinese civil war. China began producing under the name M1944 Rifle Type 53. The machines used to produce were provided by the Soviet Union in the early 1950s. They differ slightly from Soviet models. They have been replaced in the main army to China in 1957, and continued to remain in service in the provincial militias until 1970.

Finland

Before 1917, Finland was part of the Russian Empire and military units were equipped with various models of the M1891 Russian.
Having gained its independence, Finland purchased many Mosin abroad, mainly Austrian and German guns captured from the Russians during the First World War. These rifles, older, were usually renovated, and this could be as little as hallmarks of the Finnish army and a new ramp or very important as a complete overhaul with new fixtures, organs, relaxation and a gun more accurate. The Finnish Army and Civil Guard conceived and produced several new models of Mosin Nagant, using chargers French, Russian and American. Finland has never produced chargers and took those stocks purchased or captured rifles. During the Winter War between 1939 and 1940, and until 1944, Finland has taken the enemy massive amounts of Mosin. Finland still has purchased the remaining Spanish guns of the Spanish Civil War and stocks of Nazi Germany. Many of these guns were simply redistributed to the front.

The Finnish Army has continued to refurbish and redistribute Mosin Nagant well after the war against the USSR was completed.
There are M-39 with guns dating from the early 1970s, at a time when they were provided as training rifles.
Finland also distributed 7.62 TaK85 a modern sniper rifle modified from Mosin Nagant.

Finnish models were identified by the numbers: M/91-M24 “Lotta rifle”, M27, M28, M28-30 “Pystykorva” (“sharp”) and M39 “Ukko-Pekka”.
It may be noted that the Finnish M27 rifles, 28, 28-30 and 39 were equipped with a bayonet “knife” unlike Russian bayonets quadrangular.

The Finnish Mosin Nagant are renowned for their precision and reliability we can give them. The famous sniper Simo Häyhä is by far regarded as the greatest sniper in history and used a M28 “Pystykorva.”

Germany

The German Empire has captured a large quantity of Mosin Nagant during the First World War. They have received various modifications, including a recalibration (8 mm Mauser cartridge). Many were equipped with a mounting adapted to receive a German bayonet blade. These rifles were distributed in the second line and the Kriegsmarine. The Nazis also captured hundreds of thousands of different models during the Second World War.
Some were sold to Finland, many were used for training, guard towers and the occupied territories. After the Second World War, Mosin Nagant were used to guard the borders of East Germany.

Korea (North)

The Soviet Union and China provided large numbers of Mosin Nagant to North Korea during the Korean War. However, the policy of autarky still in effect today that North Korea has produced its rifles itself. Some accounts claim that Mosin Nagant sniper were still in service in 1993.

Poland

In the 1920s, Poland recalibration approximately 77,000 Mosin Nagant in 7.92 mm Mauser (8×57 mm). Many changes were made: the guns were rechambrés 8mm and shortcuts to 23 inches in length. Other changes were made to the cylinder head and shippers to allow the use of loaders and blades ensure an adequate supply. The increase was modified to fit the trajectory of the ball 8×57. The butt was shortened and he added support for Mauser bayonet to accommodate waves generated by Perkun. These rifles were called Karabinek wz. 91/98/23 or wz. 91/98/26 with some minor differences.
The Wz. 91/98/25 were fitted units of cavalry and horse artillery in the regular army until Polish Mauser manufacturing are available. In the early 1930s, they were distributed to the border and the National Guard.
The guns are marked with a small Polish eagle and the caliber of the gun at the rear of the gun. The eagle and the serial number is also stamped on the left side of the store and on all parts of the head. It has a clear and unique appearance on all versions of the Mosin Nagant.

After World War II, Poland has produced a large amount of M-44 rifles (M48 Kb. wz) in Radom arsenal. Many of them have not been in direct service, but rather were stored in warehouses until they are needed. Mosin Nagant These can be identified by an item 11 in a circle stamped on the gun store. This brand is their “country code” that identifies which countries of Eastern Europe has produced. In addition to being stored, they were produced in the ideal of Soviet weaponry, making it one of the best examples of Mosin Nagant in the world.

Turkey

As Germany and Austro-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire captured many Mosin Nagant during the First World War. Many were then acquired with German aid, or when the white army sought refuge after the Russian Civil War. These rifles were used during the war of independence against Turkey and the Greek forces during the Greco-Turkish war.

Other

The United States and allied forces have encountered shotguns and rifles Mosin Nagant in action in the hands of the Viet Cong guerrillas and soldiers of the North Vietnamese Army. These weapons came from the countries of the Warsaw Pact, the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China. A number of M-1944 Russian and Chinese Type 53 rifles were used as grenade launchers with local copies of the U.S. M7 grenade launcher. Sniper rifles scoped PU M91/30 were also seen. Many Chinese and Soviet Mosin Nagant were repatriated to the United States as trophies of war by Vietnam veterans.
Some guns were then used by the United   States. When the Czar was overthrown in 1917, the U.S. government canceled the contract originally signed by the New England Westinghouse and Remington Arms. Rather than deliver the remaining Bolshevik s all guns in transit were purchased by the American army. The guns remained in Britain equipped the U.S. and British expeditionary forces sent to North Russia in 1918-1920. The rifles still in America came to be used primarily for fire training at the U.S. Army and in some places to equip units of the National Guard of the United States or SATC and ROTC. They were called “U.S. Rifle, 7.62mm, Model of 1916″. In 1917 of these rifles were sent via Vladivostok to equip the legions Czech-Slovaks in Siberia to help them in their business to secure passage to France.
After the First World War, the remaining guns were declared surplus and were sold to members of the National Rifle Association for only $ 3.34 each. Then began the long habit of Americans to the Mosin Nagant.
Virtually every country that received military aid from the old Soviet Union used the Mosin Nagant at one time or another. Spanish Republicans bought tens of thousands of Mosin of all types during the Spanish Civil War. It is estimated that most Soviet M91/30 production went to Spain.
During the Cold War, the Middle East under Soviet influence: Egypt, Syria, Iraq and the Palestinian guerrillas were given Mosin complement other modern weapons.
The Mosin Nagant was also seen in action in the hands of the Mujahideen in Afghanistan during the s occupation of the USSR in the years 1970 to 1980. These served as the forces of the Northern Alliance in the 1990s. They also lives in the hands of Chechen rebels s alongside modern Russian weapons.

Technical information

Models Russian / Soviet

Model

GUN M1891

GUN DRAGON 1891

RIFLE COSAQUE 1891

RIFLE M1910

GUN M1891/1930

1938 RIFLE

1944 RIFLE

Length:

1,30 m

1,24 m

1,24 m

1,02 m

1,24 m

Gray line

Canon
80 cm
73 cm
73 cm
51 cm
73 cm
51 cm
51 cm
Empty weight
4.4 KG
4 KG
4 KG
3.4 KG
3.9 KG
3.5 KG
3.9 KG
Gauge / Store
7.62 X54 mm / 5 cartridges
7.62 X54 mm / 5 cartridges
7.62 X54 mm / 5 cartridges
7.62 X54 mm / 5 cartridges
7.62 X54 mm / 5 cartridges
7.62 X54 mm / 5 cartridges
7.62 X54 mm / 5 cartridges
Finnish models

Model

GUN MLE 1924

GUN MLE 1927

GUN MLE 1928

GUN MLE 1928/1930

GUN MLE 1939

Length:

1,30 m

1.185 m

1.185 m

1.185 m

1.185 m

Gray line
Canon
80 cm
68 cm
68 cm
68 cm
68 cm
Empty weight
4.4 KG
4.2 KG
4.2 KG
4.2 KG
4.4 KG
Gauge / Store
7.62 X54 mm / 5 cartridges
7.62 X54 mm / 5 cartridges
7.62 X54 mm / 5 cartridges
7.62 X54 mm / 5 cartridges
7.62 X54 mm / 5 cartridges

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