U.S. troops landed in Oran.

U.S. troops landed in Oran.

This article is about a battlefield in the Desert War of North African Campaign.

Oran, nicknamed “the radiant”, is the second largest city of Algeria and one of the largest in Maghreb. It is a city port of the Mediterranean, north-west of Algeria, at 432 km from the capital Algiers, and the capital of the province of the same name, bordering the Gulf of Oran. Oran has preserved its identity while absorbing the influence of its successive occupants.

The city is located at the bottom of an open bay to the north and directly west dominated by the mountain of Aïdour from a height of 420 meters, as well as the set of Moulay Abdelkader al-Jilani.  The town extends from both sides of the ravine of the river Rhi, now covered.

In 2008, the municipality had 674 273 inhabitants, while the population of the city of Oran was about one million inhabitants.

Oran is located along the south shore of the Mediterranean and is located in northwestern Algeria, 432 km west of the capita lAlgiers. The city stands at the bottom of an open bay to the north of the Gulf of Oran, and is dominated on the west by the mountains of Aïdour (429 m) which separates it from the town of Mers-el-Kebir. To the south it is bordered by the towns of Es Senia, for the set of Moulay Abdelkader al-Jilani (Moul el Meida) and south-west by a large sabkha. The town of Bir El Djir is its eastern suburbs.

During the Second World War, Oran is the site of several major events. On July 3, 1940, it took place the battle of Mers el Kebir. A British squadron attacked a French squadron at anchor. This bombardment results in the loss of the battleship Bretagne. The battle cruiser Dunkerque, the battleship Provence and cons destroyer Mogador were knocked out. This struggle caused the death or disappearance of 1,297 sailors and 351 wounded.

The Great Synagogue of Oran

The Great Synagogue of Oran

On November 8, 1942, it was held in Algiers, Casablanca and Oran, the Operation Torch. After two days of heavy fighting between the forces of Vichy and the Allies, whose superiority in men and material is overwhelming, Oran capitulates on November 10. The same month, the Americans landed in the bay, starting point of the Italian campaign.

In 1942, the inhabitants of the East of Oran are fleeing en masse to the city of Oran. The city is unable to accommodate them unsafe, and migrants are nicknamed Chéraga. In 1943, El-Widad coffee is created by a group of militant nationalists in the city center in Europe. This will play an important role in the development of patriotism Algeria. Over time, he became a collection center for representative of the different trends of the time-independence parties.

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