QF 12 pounder 12 cwt naval gun

The QF 12 pounder 12 cwt naval gun was introduced in 1894 in the Royal Navy and occupied until the mid-twentieth century naval gun of the caliber of 3 inches (76 mm). This QF stands for Quick Fire (rapid-fire cannon), 12 pounder for the bullet weight, 12 cwt for the weight of the pipe and closure (to distinguish from other twelve-pounders), and naval gun (naval gun) for the primary purpose (The term British guns at the time of construction was not uniform, guns were referred to the bullet weight, the weight of the gun or the caliber).

The gun was produced by Armstrong Whitworth and Elswick.

As Type 41 3-inch (76.2 mm) / 40, the gun was on the early battleship and cruiser s n the Imperial Japanese Navy use. Colloquially, the cannon was called there on the basis of their English names as well as a 12-pounder (twelve-pounders).

The gun was still used in Italy and manufactured by Ansaldo under license.

Construction

The gun was a breech-loader. The gun had a hydraulic brake pipe, which made the space-saving design available only on warships. Depending on the usage, mount n were used.

Ammunition used in the propellant and grenade were loaded separately. With igniting the propellant charge in a brass cartridge was located and was introduced to the grenade in the tube. This type of ammunition was designated as separate loading QF. This allowed a higher rate of fire than the conventional rear-loaders (BL – breech loading), where basement, igniting propellant bag and had to be loaded separately. Opposite cartridged ammunition (grenade and propellant are in a cartridge and loaded together) but the cadence was less, as antiaircraft artillery another Munitionierung necessitated the use of the gun.

In British service 5.67 kg (12.5 lb) heavy projectiles were used. The propellant charge was detonated electrically by a building under the bottom of the cartridge primer. The required voltage was provided by a battery. The electric ignition device could be replaced by an adapter that allowed a mechanical firing.

It explosive shell n were used shrapnel grenades were also available. Since priority fast, small and unarmored targets should be fought, the use of special armor piercing ammunition was unnecessary or impractical.

Royal Navy

The Mk I and II versions were up to the First World War many British destroyer s for defense of submarine torpedo boat s and s used.

During the Second World War, the gun was on destroyers and armed merchant ships. Special Lafettierungen with a large potential increase allowable tube additionally also use as to airborne aircraft gun.

Second Boer War

The gun was designed primarily as a ship’s cannon with a high muzzle velocity. The tube was therefore relatively heavy, which necessitated a fixed mount. The gun was therefore considered for use on land outside of fortifications as inappropriate. During the Second Boer War, the British Army but the superior artillery of the Boers could oppose no equivalent weapons. Along with other guns 16 copies of the gun were put on impromptu mobile launchers, which in turn were developed by Captain Percy Scott. The mount consisted of a massive wooden structure that was set to a relatively small wheels of the car in South Africa then usual. The range of around 9,100 meters allowed the British troops later in the war, a far-reaching artillery support. These guns were twelve long as the (long twelves) referred to it colloquially of the BL 12 pounder 6 cwt and QF 12 pounder 8 cwt to distinguish who had a shorter tube and a lower firing range.

The electric firing originally used, which worked satisfactorily under ideal conditions, prepared in field use problems and required special maintenance personnel as well as the transport and maintenance of the charged electric batteries even under field conditions. However, this proved to be practically impossible, so that was converted to the corresponding reports from the troops on Vent sealing tubes. This is a type of percussion cap: a tube was filled with cordite from behind into the cartridge or Propellant employed. The charge of the tube was ignited by the firing pin and in turn ignited the propellant charge. This type of firing became the standard solution for medium-heavy British artillery. Originally developed for guns, where propellant and projectile were loaded separately with the 12 pounder, the use of an adapter instead of the original electrical ignition device was necessary.

Another six guns were diverted from a computer located in Newcastle upon Tyne in Japanese battleship construction. These guns were purchased by Lady Meux bought, made ​​by Elswick set to field guns and transferred to South Africa. The guns were the British commander in South Africa, Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, transferred and remained his personal property. This approach was in the British army otherwise not common. The crews were recruited from volunteers. These were company employees of Elswick, who were recruited from the 1st Northumberland Royal Garrison Artillery. The battery was known as Elswick Battery and was used throughout the war.

Coastal defense

Many guns of this type were mounted on pivot carriages and used for coastal defense. They were used for the defense of the port facilities and naval bases n in the British Isles and in the Colony and Dominion s They were used to fight smaller and faster ships. In the year 1918 103 (from a total of 383 guns built of all versions) were used in the coastal defense. Their use lasted until the mid-fifties of the twentieth century, but they have been replaced during the Second World War, in part, by more modern types such as the QF 6 pounder 10 cwt twin guns.

The guns were set manually. The gunner stood to the left of the cannon and put an arm over a shoulder. Align the lateral shift was over the body, while the gunner with his left hand-operated hand wheel height leveler. The pistol grip for the firing was there in the right hand of the soldier.

Antiaircraft gun

During World War II some guns were placed on wheeled carriages to obtain at least a reasonably portable anti-aircraft gun. These guns were as QF 12 pounder 12 cwt AA gun and fired referred cartridged ammunition.

Imperial Japanese Navy

The Japanese Type 41 3-inch (76 mm) naval gun was a direct copy of the QF 12 pounder. The first guns of this type were as Elswick Pattern N and Vickers Mark Z nor imported from Great Britain, after which the license production was carried out at the Japan Steel Works in Japan. These guns was the standard armament for the secondary and tertiary artillery of most built 1890-1920 Japanese warships. They came to the end of the Second World War for use.

The official designation as Type 41 is derived from the forty-first anniversary of the reign of Emperor Meiji on 25 From December 1908. Later was in the transition of the Japanese Navy to the metric system to reclassify than 76 mm cannon. Although referred to the end of their period of service than 8 cm gun, the original caliber of 7.62 cm was maintained.

The Type 41 3-inch (76 mm) naval gun missed 5.7 kilograms (12.5 pounds) heavy explosive grenade n

Italy

The first guns were purchased from Elswick, was later during the First World War, the licensed production at Ansaldo designed by Armstrong or a modified design as anti-aircraft guns. After the war the guns were on smaller units and auxiliary ships. During the Second World War, 730 guns of this type have been used in the Italian air defense. The guns were depending on the manufacturer or Licensor 76.2 mm/40 (3 “) Ansaldo in 1916 and 1917 respectively or 3″ / 40 (7.62 cm) Armstrong bzw.1917 1916 respectively. In Italy cartridged ammunition was used exclusively for these guns.

Literature

•Text Book of Gunnery, 1902. LONDON: PRINTED FOR HIS MAJESTY’S STATIONERY OFFICE, BY HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN’S LANE

Lieutenant CRN Burne RN: With the Naval Brigade in Natal (1899-1900). Edward Arnold, London, 1902

•Admiral Percy Scott: Fifty Years in the Royal Navy, 1919

Gun caliber 50 mm to 100 mm

Ship gun

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