Slovak National Uprising

The Slovak National Uprising (Slovak: Slovak National povstanie, SNPs) also uprising in 1944 (Slovak: Povstanie v roku 1944) is the name for a military survey of parts of the Slovak army and guerrilla units in central Slovakia during the Second World War against the invasion of German forces in Slovakia from 29 August 1944. Center of the uprising was the town of Banská Bystrica.

The Slovak National Uprising addressed indirectly against the authoritarian government in collaboration Slovak President Jozef Tiso and the Hlinka’s Slovak People’s Party, and against the Slovak statehood as such. It lasted until 28 October 1944 as the military leadership of the rebels under General Rudolf VIEST gave an open struggle against the Wehrmacht and went to the partisan struggle they continued until the liberation of Slovakia by the Red Army in April 1945.

The Slovak National Uprising is next to the Warsaw Uprising, the only outstanding rebellion of a people under German rule during World War II, 29 August is a national holiday in the present-day Slovakia. Not to be confused with the Slovak National Uprising Slovak uprising of 1848-1849.

Release

Unlike the Warsaw Uprising, on 1 Began in August 1944, the Slovak National Uprising was indeed originally planned under purely national point of view, but could not ignore the existing underground Communist Party. The so well-informed about all projects Soviet Union used this to their own planning. For weeks active communist partisan contempt associations in the Eastern and Central Slovakia should therefore, together with fallen by the Slovak government strong military associations, the release of Nazi influence until then occupied by German troops land, but at the same time to go through the Carpathian passes to freely to Vienna. The waste Romania – it was on 23 August 1944 joined the Allies – and the fall of the government in Bucharest (9 September 1944) was an example of the changes resulting from a change of government, military capabilities, which, however, not entirely consistent with the considerations of the Slovak National Council.

The Slovak National Council was the political center of the uprising. He appointed a military staff, at its head Ján Golian, Chief of Staff of the Land Forces in Banská Bystrica. The staff planned discretion, that the first Slovak army corps should open the passes for the Red Army and their way to Vienna. In recognition was expected the granting of national statehood Slovakia.

The revolt was triggered prematurely by an unforeseen incident. The expelled from Romania German military mission was on the train ride to Germany on 27 August 1944 and detained on the morning of 28 in Sv.Martin remained under unexplained circumstances, shot on a parade ground. The operation was quickly known and called for an immediate punitive expedition of the German side, the left indent from the northwest SS units. Which could be addressed by the National Council only with the declaration of National Uprising – provided earlier than planned. It was hoped to hold in any case, the central and eastern Slovakia, to the always powered by the Communists of the Soviet support but originally conceived purely national uprising was inevitable. German hand, saw the impending loss in the Central and Eastern Slovakia lying areas with a strong German population, as these were used as support for the indefensible Carpathian passes. Therefore, the German high command responded immediately.

Military actions

Although German first Panzer Army in heavy defensive battles in space Tarnów – was involved Dębica, she released her only Army Reserve, a strong regiment, from the front and brought it south New characrterized with trucks on the Slovakian border to Kezmarok / Käsmark that just take the insurgents in term were.

In mild to moderate combat the insurgent troops were pushed in a few days from the Zips and up to the Gran Valley. Only in the run-up to Brezno / sweetbreads they managed to build a resistance line. In Telgárt there was even temporarily successful counter-attacks. They tried to stay near the Dukla Pass it possible that under the original plan of the National Council by the 1st Slovak army corps should be occupied before the arrival of German troops and kept free for the march through the Red Army.

The failure of this plan was due to the fact that part of the German Wehrmacht in no time the reserve of 1 Panzer Army and quickly put together five battle groups could be used with strong interests well-equipped SS units for crushing the uprising. Mid-September, all the important places around the insurrection center in Banská Bystrica / Neusohl “liberated” – the official version – the first Slovak Corps suffered heavy losses, the Carpathian passes were already in their run-up to the German 1 Panzer Army secured. The OKW had the bandages used there to defend even more on five divisions and two battle groups to prevent a Soviet breakthrough to rebel territory. By the end of October 1944, the Red Army despite superiority only push back the German defense from the run up to the mountain passes. In addition, not all followed the commands scheduled Slovak associations from Banska Bystrica. Many surrendered and laid down their weapons. In other sections of Slovak organizations are disbanded, many soldiers went into captivity, others joined the partisans. The Western Slovakia was occupied in this way in a short time, the strong garrisons Bratislava / Pressburg and Nitra / Neutra surrendered without a fight.

Center of the uprising remained until the day of his income in the course of an outgoing Hungary German offensive Banská Bystrica / Bystrica, but that is under its zone of influence was increasingly concentrated. Although Soviet aircraft brought nightly weapons, ammunition and drugs, they also led to the 20th October, a “second Czechoslovak Airborne Brigade “into the riot area, but the amounts were insufficient. The uprising terminating the German offensive began on 17 October. She was taken from the south of Hungary. On 27 October 1944 to Banská Bystrica revealed. The fighting there until the last insurgents were captured, many deserted at the last minute and ran over to partisan groups, who continued the resistance until the arrival of Soviet organizations.

In the liberated areas of guerrillas and insurgents prevailed locally and sometimes regionally strong repressive pressure. In pursuit of the defeated enemy came not so much Wehrmacht units, whose share in the suppression of the uprising was rather small in number, as the Waffen-SS with their auxiliary troops of Homeland Security, which consisted of recruited people German, n, and the readiness units of the Hlinka Guard under the leadership of Otomar Kubala used. Some villages like Nemecká, Kalište and Telgárt were burned for their involvement and support of the uprising that brought men to concentration camps or shot on the spot.

From the start of the uprising until full occupation of Slovakia by the Red Army victims were later called more than 5,000 civilian.

The total number of killed in the course of the uprising, or killed in other ways Slovak soldiers and civilians has been estimated at 20,000.

In the course of the uprising occurred in Carpathian German towns to extremely violent attacks by partisans, including Sklene in Hauerland (massacre of Sklene).

These incidents were a prelude to escape Anticipatory and finally to the resettlement of the Germans, as well as large parts of the Hungarian population. The majority inhabited by Hungarians in Slovakia were called up to the end of the First World War “Upper Hungary”, then integrated into Czechoslovakia and fell after a few years of limited autonomy back to this.

Literature

Bibliography

German literature

•Roland Schönfeld: Slovakia. Publishing Frederick Pustet, Regensburg 2000, ISBN 3-7917-1723-5.

•Wolfgang Venohr: Uprising in the Tatras.The struggle to Slovakia from 1939 to 1944. Athenaeum Verlag, home ground in 1983, ISBN 3-7610-8057-3.

Slovak literature

•Jozef Jablonický: Z ilegality do povstania.(Z Kapitoly občianskeho odboja) From the Ilegalität in the uprising. (Chapter from the civil resistance) 2 Edition, DALI BB / Muzeum SNP, 2009, ISBN 978-80-89090-60-0.

•Jozef Jablonický: Slovník Slovenského národného povstania. Dictionary of the Slovak National Uprising. Epocha, Bratislava 1970.

•Martin Lacko: Slovak National povstanie 1944 .The Slovak National Uprising in 1944. Slovart Publishing, Bratislava 2008, ISBN 978-80-8085-575-8.

•Martin Lacko: Atika problem partizánskych násilnosti 1944-1945 The problem partisanischer violence from 1944 to 1945. : Peter Sokolovic (ed.): Perzekúcie na Slovensku v rokoch 1938-1945 Persekutionen in Slovakia in the years 1938-1945. Ústav pamäti národa, Bratislava 2008, ISBN 978-80-89335-08-4, pp. 296-304.

•Stanislav Mičev, et al: Slovak National povstanie 1944 .The Slovak National Uprising in 1944. Muzeum Slovenského národného povstania, Bratislava 2009, ISBN 978-80-970238-3-6.

•Miroslav Pekník (eds): Slovak National povstanie 1944. Súčast európskej antifašistickej rezistencie v rokoch druhej svetovej vojny. The Slovak National Uprising in 1944. Part of the European anti-fascist resistance during the years of the Second World War. Ústav Politických vied SAV VEDA / Muzeum SNP, Bratislava 2009, ISBN 978-80-224-1090-8.

Further Reading:

•Milan S. Ďurica: Dejiny a Slovákov Slovenska v časovej následnosti faktov dvoch tisícročí History of Slovakia and the Slovaks in chronological order of the facts of two millennia. Luc, Bratislava 2007, ISBN 978-80-7114-610-0.

•Dušan Kováč: Dejiny Slovenska History of Slovakia. NLN, Prague 2000, ISBN 80-7106-268-5.

•Martin Lacko: Slovenská republika 1939-1945 The Slovak Republic from 1939 to 1945.] Perfect / Ústav pamäti národa, Bratislava 2008, ISBN 978-80-8046-408-0.

•Peter Sokolovic: Hlinkova garda 1938-1945 The Hlinka Guard from 1938 to 1945.

•František Vnuk: Stopäťdesiat rokov v Zivote národa.Slovensko v rokoch 1843-1993 One hundred and fifty years in the life of the people. Slovakia in the years 1843-1993. Luc, Bratislava 2004, ISBN 80-7114-440-1.

Memoirs

•Alexander Dubček: Z pamäti.Nádej zomiera Posledna From the memories. Brokedown. Vydavatel’stvo Národná obroda, Bratislava 1993, ISBN 80-7094279-7.

•Gustav Husák: Svedectvo o slovenskom národnom Povstání testimony about the Slovak National Uprising. Vydavatel’stvo politickej literatúry, Bratislava, 1964.

•Alexander Mach Z ďalekých ciest From distant paths. Matica Slovenská, Martin, 2009, ISBN 978-80-7090-915-7.

•Gejza Medricky: Minister spomína The Minister recalled. Literature, Bratislava 1993, ISBN 80-900456-4-2.

Sources and Documents

•Ladislav Susko (eds): The German Reich and the Slovak Republic from 1938 to 1945. Volume I, book 2 Luc, Bratislava 2008, ISBN 978-80-7114-679-7.

The Slovak National Uprising

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