The Holocaust in Russia

Holocaust in Russia – the systematic persecution and extermination of the Jewish population of Russia on the initiative of Germany by German Nazis and their allies and collaborators in one thousand nine hundred and forty-one – 1,944 years under the policy of ” final solution of the Jewish question. ”

The occupation

As a result of the German invasion of the USSR on June 22, 1941 west and south-western part of the territory of the Russian occupation troops came under Wehrmacht. July 9, German troops occupied Pskov, July 16 – Smolensk, August 17-19 – Narva and Novgorod, October 6 was captured Bryansk, 13th – Kaluga, 14th – Kalinin. In the south, on October 17, was captured by the Taganrog. Rostov-on-Don was occupied twice – in November 1941 and summer 1942. In the summer of 1942 were occupied. In the occupied territories of the German administration and the Wehrmacht were the mass murder of the Jewish population.

Ghettos and mass executions

According to reports in the occupied territory of Russia was 41 ghetto in 12 regions and 40 towns (in Nevel had two). More than two thirds of all of the ghettos were established in three regions of Russia. 15 of them are ghetto, where it turned out more than 11,000 prisoners were in the Smolensk region. The total number of prisoners in the ghetto Russia (without Crimea) was more than 28 000 people.

In all areas with any significant concentration of the Jewish population of the ghetto were created, and only then began mass executions.

In Kaluga and Kalinin regions as a result of the Moscow counteroffensive in several areas (particularly in the Kaluga) occupiers do not have time to destroy the Jewish population. In the Kalinin of the 250 remaining in the occupation of Jews were murdered 200.

In Leningrad and Novgorod regions, on the North Caucasus and Crimea (with few exceptions) the destruction of the Jewish population was carried out immediately after the seizure of settlements and the Jews before the execution of certain buildings were concentrated in only a few hours or days.

The murder of the Jews of South Russia and the North Caucasus began in the summer of 1942, after the Nazi occupation of these regions. July 23, 1942, was the mass murder of the Jews of Rostov-on-Don in Zmiyiv beam. Total in three autonomous republics, two territories and the three regions of the RSFSR, occupied in the summer and autumn of 1942, killed about 70,000 Jews.

List of Jewish ghetto

According to the “Encyclopedia of the ghetto during the Holocaust” (Yad Vashem) and the book “The Holocaust and the Jewish resistance in the occupied territory of the USSR” (I. Altman) in the territory of the RSFSR of that time were in the ghetto the following locations:

Crimean AO (was part of the Russian Federation)

Dzhankoi

Yalta

Kalinin Region

Loknya

Nevel

Opochka

Pustoshka

Rzhev

Sebezh

Toropets

Kursk region

Dmitriev Lgovskii

Leningrad Region

Vyritsa

Pskov

Staraya Russa

Orel region

Kletnya

Klincy

Mglin

Starodub

Unecha

Zlynka

Smolensk region

Bezhanitsy

Gusino

Il’ino

Karachev

Khislavichi

Red

Lubavitch

Mikulino

Monastyrshchina

Petrovichi

Fixes

Roslavl

Rud

Shumyachi

Smolensk

Tatarsk

Usvyaty

Velizh

Zaharina

Stavropol region

Essentuky

Mikoyan-Shahar

Nalchik

Tula region

Kaluga

Memorialization

In 1992, the Ministry of Justice of Russia was first recorded in the post-specialized non-governmental organization – the Scientific and Educational Center “Holocaust”. In the years 1994-2002 he organized in Moscow four international scientific conference “Lessons of the Holocaust and Contemporary Russia”.

According to Ilya Altman, Russia is clearly lagging behind neighboring countries by number of places where the monuments to the victims of the Holocaust.

The denial of the Holocaust in Russia

In the Soviet Union after the war, the Holocaust silenced for ideological reasons.

Professor, University of Michigan historian Zvi Gitelman said one of the important features of Soviet historiography. Soviet historiography, in his opinion, is not just a “silent about the Holocaust,” and moreover completely refused to recognize its “uniqueness” against the background of other atrocities in that it did not give any information about the murder of Jews by the Nazis as an independent research problem. Covering up continues in modern Russia, which, speaking at a conference on the 60th anniversary of the liberation of the concentration camps and ghettos, said the Israeli ambassador to Russia Arkady Milman:

I am not speaking as an ambassador of Israel, but as a man whose family members have fought and suffered during the Second World War. And I do not understand how it is possible that in Russian history textbooks do not mention the Holocaust of the Jewish people

This view is supported by some Russian scientists and public figures. In particular, in 2008, a number of researchers leading institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Jewish Congress filed a complaint on the matter to the authors of school textbooks on history. The researchers argue that there is no textbook in which the story of the Russian Jews would be represented adequately, and does not reflect the Holocaust or at all, or not shown as “the only time in world history when a certain state has attempted to completely destroy a distinct people”.

State anti-Semitism in the Soviet Union after its collapse contributed to the emergence of a Russian nationalist and pro-fascist movements. In the mid-1990s, there was literature that denied that the Holocaust or were put under question its essential aspects. Israeli historian Daniel Romanovsky said that the Russian Holocaust deniers (in particular, Vadim Kozhinov) are of low intellectual level, compared with like-minded people from the U.S. and Europe, and the lack of any independent fresh ideas. Opinion about the secondary of the Russian Holocaust denial is also of Stella Rock. Among the Russian Holocaust deniers are also called Yuri Mukhin, Stanislaus Kunyaeva, Oleg Platonov, and some other.

January 26-27, 2002 in Moscow, the “International Conference on Global Issues of world history”, which was attended by such well-known in the world as a revisionist movement activists Jürgen Graf, Ahmed Rami, David Duke and Granata (Engl. Russel Granata). The conference was sponsored magazine Barnes Review, a publisher who is racist and Holocaust denier Willis Carto. Granata argued that it is in Russia Holocaust deniers find understanding and support. Institute for Historical Review published an article on the “revisionist breakthrough in Russia”, describing the special issue of the newspaper “Russian Journal” on the subject of Holocaust denial, Jürgen Graf and Oleg Platonov – as the editors of this special issue, as well as a number of other revisionist publications.

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